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Stephen S. Deschamps and Shinsuke Agehara

during the early-season months of November, December, and January. According to U.S. strawberry market data from 2012–17, the average grower price in November was $22.80 per 3.6-kg flat, followed by $18.94, $14.38, $11.40, and $8.88 for the months of

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Henry G. Taber

Black, clear, and wavelength-selective IRT 76 plastic mulches with or without clear, slitted, hooped rowcovers were evaluated for early muskmelon production in 1991 and 1992. Clear and IRT 76 plastic mulches tripled early yield, compared with bare ground, 130 and 45 cwt/acre, respectively. Highest yields both years were from the combination of rowcover with either clear plastic or IRT 76 mulch-181 cwt/acre in 1991 and 379 cwt/acre in 1992. Yield from clear plastic was superior to that from IRT 76 by 41 cwt/acre in 1991, but not in 1992. The minimum soil temperature for IRT 76 compared with clear plastic was +0. 5F and -2F for 1991 and 1992, respectively. Crop rotation and herbicides were used to provide adequate weed control both years. The best cost-effective early muskmelon production system tested involved clear plastic, rowcovers, and trickle irrigation.

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Roy H. Peterson and Henry G. Taber

Five polyethylene rowcover treatments (none, slitted white, slitted clear, chimney, and perforated) were combined factorially with four tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill)] cultivars (`PikRed', `Jetstar', `Supersonic B', and `Heinz 1810') in a 2-year experiment. Clear or white rowcovers more than doubled early yield in 1986, from 1.2 to 2.9 t·ha-1. This early yield advantage resulted from an advancement of flowering rather than an increase in fruit number or size. In Spring 1987, high temperature caused increased fruit abortion with all rowcovers, resulting in early yield reduction. Flower production on the first two clusters for either year was not reduced by high temperatures and was increased for `Heinz 1810'. Tomatoes under slitted, white covers, the best-yielding treatment in 1987, yielded only 72% of those without rowcovers. Sustained high temperature, ≈ 40C for 3 consecutive hours or more, occurred with all rowcovers and correlated with early yield loss.

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Richard L. Fery and Philip D. Dukes

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Diego Cunha Zied, Marli Teixeira Almeida Minhoni, J. Emilio Pardo-González, and Arturo Pardo-Giménez

(1972) . The CACing technique has several advantages, and the most important are: earlier first flush by 3 to 4 d, more uniform distribution of mushrooms over the entire bed surface, and elimination of soil-breaking pins resulting in cleaner mushrooms

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Daniel I. Leskovar, Chenping Xu, and Shinsuke Agehara

Jani, 2000 ). Artichoke plants develop a dense and large foliage biomass with a canopy reaching up to 2 m wide and 1 m high at maturity for the early cultivar Imperial Star or even higher for new hybrid cultivars ( Ryder et al., 1983 ). Optimizing plant

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Andrew B. Ogden and Marc W. van Iersel

passively ventilated plastic greenhouse covered with a single layer of polyethylene ( Lamont, 2009 ; Waterer, 2003 ). Research has documented many advantages of high tunnel cultivation. Early crop production (7 d to 21 d earlier than field), high yields

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Lorenzo León, Raúl de la Rosa, Diego Barranco, and Luis Rallo

, 1978 ; Lavee et al., 1986 , 1999 , 2003 , 2004 ). In Spain, an olive breeding program was initiated in 1992 in Cordoba aimed at superseding the main cultivars in use ( Rallo, 1995 ). Earliness of bearing and oil productivity were two of the main

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Craig E. Kallsen and Dan E. Parfitt

project in the 1990s ( Kallsen et al., 2009 ), from a cross of female 2-35, originally selected by Dr. J. Crane in the 1970s, and ES2, an early flowering male of unknown parentage. ‘Gumdrop’ was selected as seedling S-43 (one of 35 seedlings from ‘B15

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Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Wesley R. Autio

concentration; however, with the exception of some early work with detached berries ( Hall and Stark, 1972 ), there is no information available on the effect of temperature on phenolic production in cranberry fruit. Information detailing environmental impacts on