Field experiments were conducted in 1986 through 1988 to evaluate the effects of rates and timing of ethephon application on growth, yield, and lodging of `Jubilee' sweet corn (Zea mays L.). As a comparison, hand-topping was performed 10 days after early silking to simulate the commercial practice of mechanical topping to reduce lodging. Ethephon reduced plant height by 12% to 26%, with timing of application determining location of internode length reductions. There was greater reduction of ear height by ethephon applied at tassel elongation (TE) than at 1 and 2 weeks later. Effects of ethephon on husked yield varied from an 8% increase in yield to an 18% decrease, depending on rate, timing, and season. Topping reduced yield in one of the four experiments. Ear length was reduced by ethephon at 0.28 kg·ha-1 in two of the four experiments. A helicopter fly-over resulted in 66% of topped plants lodging, compared to 87% of untreated plants. Lodging of plants that received an ethephon application of 0.28 kg·ha-1 at TE averaged 51% for Expts. 2, 3, and 4. The amount of lodging tended to be least in those ethephon treatments with the largest reduction `in plant or ear height. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid (ethephon).
A.D. Bratsch and H.J. Mack
Matthew D. Kleinhenz
A total of 21 and 28 standard and experimental varieties of yellow and white se- and sh2-type sweet corn (Zea mays) were planted in 1999 and 2000 in Fremont and Wooster, Ohio, which are separated by 193.1 km (120 miles) and contain different soil types. Data are reported here for a subset of these varieties (eight yellow, two white) showing a consistently high level of use in Ohio and planted in both years. Endosperm types were planted in distinct, parallel experiments separated by a minimum of 79.9 m (262 ft) at each site. A randomized complete block design with four replications per variety (V) per location (L) was used, with measures of 13 production- and market-based variables taken from emergence to 48 hours after harvest. Soluble solids 48 hours after harvest were greater at Wooster than Fremont in the sh2 study. Variety had a significant, independent effect on mean plant and ear height in the se and sh2 study, respectively, although further analysis of year × variety (Y × V) and location × variety (L × V) interactions suggested that V affected additional traits. On average, `Tuxedo' (se) and `HMX6383S' (sh2) had superior com-binations of grower- and consumer-oriented traits. However, varieties with the highest levels of percent emergence and marketable yield tended to have lower levels of soluble solids, regardless of endosperm type. Y × V interactions were primarily due to changes in the magnitude of values for individual varieties in each year, not from changes in their relative ranking. The Y × L × V interaction was significant (P ≤ 0.05) for marketable yield, plant and ear height, and the ratio of ear length to diameter in the se study, but zero variables in the sh2 study. Coefficients of determination (R 2) for selected plant and ear traits were unaffected by location. Overall, R2 values ranged from 0.04 (number of rows of kernels × ear diameter, sh2 study) to 0.83 (shank length × total ear length, sh2 study). These data reinforce that genetics strongly affect key traits in sweet corn and identify two potential top performers. The data also suggest that independent L or L × V effects may be minor relative to V effects, even when locations are separated by moderate distances and contain different soil types. Therefore, including more varieties but fewer sites may be warranted in future variety trials. The data also suggest that 1) ratings of variety performance should be based on objective measures of grower- and market-oriented traits and 2) shank length × total ear length and ear height × plant height relationships may be used to improve the efficiency of future evaluations.
Thomas M. Butzler, Elsa S. Sánchez, Steven M. Bogash, Timothy E. Elkner, William J. Lamont Jr., Robert Pollock, and Lee J. Stivers
lower in 2013. All other cultivars at the southwestern sites were not different from Temptation in both years. Table 5. The work involved in hand harvest measured as distance from the soil line to the base of the primary ear (ear height) and the ease or
Luther Waters Jr., Rhoda L. Burrows, Mark A. Bennett, and John Schoenecker
A series of experiments exploring the effect of seed moisture and transplant management techniques was conducted with sh2 and su sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The use of seed and transplants in a progression of developmental stages from dry seed to moistened seed to 14-day-old transplants showed that moistened seed had no impact on plant `growth and development. Use of transplants generally had little impact beyond decreasing percent survival and plant height. Increasing the age of transplants reduced the time to maturity and harvest. Increasing the size of the transplant container (paper pot) decreased the time to harvest for younger seedings, but had no other effects. Premoistened seed were successfully held at 10C for up to 72 hours without damage following moisturization. Delays in irrigation of up to 2 days after planting moistened seed had no detrimental effects on sweet corn emergence and growth.
David B. Rubino and David W. Davis
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mild mass selection for adaptation on the performance, genotypic variance, combining ability, S1 family-testcross correlation, and midparent heterosis of S1 families derived from a sweet corn (su) × tropical maize (Zea mays L.) composite (Composite 1R). Four cycles of random mating followed by 10 cycles of 10% stratified mass selection were conducted for earliness, plant and ear type, and freedom from pests. Selection significantly (P < 0.01) decreased plant height, ear height, percentage barrenness, and ear length, and significantly (P < 0.01) increased stalk breakage, earliness (Celsius heat units to 50% anthesis and silking), and kernel row number of both S1 families and their testcrosses. Juvenile plant height at 45 days after planting increased in testcrosses only. Percentage tip blanking and pericarp thickness did not change. For most traits, the greatest response occurred during the first five of 10 selection cycles. Cycle 10 testcrosses performed at least as well as elite check testcrosses for eight of 10 traits. The tropical parents improved combining ability for increased juvenile plant height and kernel row number, and decreased percentage of stalk breakage. As a result of selection, genotypic variance among S families decreased by >40% for heat units to 50% anthesis and silking, ear height, and percentage of barrenness, although for all traits measured, significant genotypic variation persisted following 10 cycles of mass selection for adaptation. S1-testcross correlations and percentage midparent heterosis tended to be consistent across selection cycles. Five cycles of mild stratified mass selection increased the adaptation of a temperate sweet corn × tropical maize composite to the temperate zone of the United States while maintaining significant genotypic variation.
T.E. Dickert and W.F. Tracy
Heterosis in corn (Zea mays L.) usually results in earlier flowering, larger plants, and increased yield. In extremely early sweet corn the effect of heterosis on flowering time may be reduced or eliminated due to developmental and physiological requirements for vegetative growth before the transition to reproductive phase. The objective of this study was to determine the level of heterosis and the combining ability for flowering time and other agronomic traits in a diallel cross of six very early open-pollinated sweet corn cultivars. The diallel was grown in 1995 and 1996. Hybrids and parents averaged over hybrids differed for silk date, plant height, ear height, 10-ear weight, ear length, and 100-kernel weight but did not differ for row number and ear width. Heterosis for silk date was significant, but the difference between parents and hybrids was very small, 0.5 day. No hybrids were earlier than the earliest parent, and average midparent heterosis was -0.8%. In contrast midparent heterosis was significant and relatively high for 100-kernel weight (10.0%), ear length (12.9%), ear height (8.6%), plant height (9.0%), and 10-ear weight (28.2%). The traits with low heterosis had very high general combining ability/specific combining ability ratios while these ratios were much smaller in traits with high heterosis. Heterosis for many of the traits, including 10-ear weight, was higher than published values. Conversely, heterosis for flowering time was small, compared to other traits in this study and to published values for silk date, indicating that this extremely early germplasm may be at or near the limit for flowering time under the photoperiod and temperatures typical of summer in Madison, Wis. (43.05°N, 89.31°W).
Reid R. Rice and William F. Tracy
and the main stalk. Plant height was measured from the soil surface to the tassel tip and ear height was measured from the soil surface to the ligule of the leaf subtending the ear. Plant and ear heights were recorded individually on five consecutive
Yim F. So, Martin M. Williams II, and Jerald K. Pataky
) reported that of 16 traits in four dent corn hybrids, grain yield per plant and yield per unit area were the most elastic traits, whereas kernel row number and ear height varied the least. Similar results were observed in the present study as evidenced by
Ivan Simko and Jinguo Hu
associations might also be false positives. These results are somewhat different from the previous comparison of the two models. When maize flowering time, ear height, and ear diameter were analyzed on a panel of 277 inbred lines, correction by the RK model was