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Panthip Boonsong, Natta Laohakunjit, Orapin Kerdchoechuen and Frank B. Matta

plants using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry and HPLC. This research will provide information on the presence, color, and number of pigments and polyphenols (colorants) in plant extracts for possible use as hair coloring dyes. Materials and Methods

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Alan Stevens and Karen Gast

The commercial production of preserved plant materials for decorative purposes is expanding. The industry, once dominated by a relatively small number of large wholesale firms, marketing through traditional retail florists, is undergoing change. A large retail craft supply industry, country accent retail stores and home-based businesses selling at craft fairs have greatly expanded the market for preserved plant materials. Glycerin has often been used to maintain flexibility and reduce breakage of preserved foliages. Dyes are added to the glycerin to add color to the tissue as the chlorophyll fades. Competition in the marketplace places constant pressure on controlling costs. Technical grade dyes of lower dye purity and higher salt concentrations have a lower cost per gram of material than food grade dyes. The effect of the two grades of dye on uptake of glycerin/dye solutions into Eucalyptus cinerea were measured. Under both growth chamber and laboratory room environments glycerin solution alone was systemically absorbed at a greater rate and in larger quantity than either grade of dye. A variation in systemic absorption between grades of dye was also indicated.

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Michael A. Arnold and Eric Young

The root systems of dormant l-year-old apple (Malus domestics Borkh. `Starkrimson') grafted on seedling rootstock were dipped for 15 seconds in one of six dye treatments or a water control. Trees were destructively harvested at 15, 30, and 90 days after treatment to monitor new root and shoot growth and effectiveness of dyes for distinguishing between regenerated roots and those present at planting. Neutral red and methylene blue allowed effective separation of new and old roots through 90 days after treatment, and had few adverse effects on root or shoot growth, with a water control being the standard. Crystal violet and safranin-O allowed effective separation between regenerated and previously existing roots, but these dyes adversely affected new root and shoot growth. Alizarin red S and Hantover meat branding ink were ineffective for distinguishing between regenerated and previously existing roots by 15 days after treatment.

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Robert C. Ebel and Jonathan P. Lynch

Kinematic analysis allows accurate description of physiological changes along root axes by additionally taking into account changes due to dilution as cells expand. In previous studies using kinematic analysis, roots have been marked with ink by fine-tipped pens or single hair brushes. These methods have occasionally reduced root growth and limited resolution to the width of the marks, usually 1 mm. We describe a new method of marking roots with the fluorescent dye calcofluor which does not reduce root growth. The terminal 7 mm of bean root tips were grown vertically in a glass chamber into which a constant flow of aerated nutrient solution was passed. A 0.001% calcofluor solution was pulsed through the chamber for 1 min. Excess calcofluor was removed rapidly by a high rate of nutrient flow (200 ml·h–1) for 3 min. after which flow was reduced to 20 ml/hr. Roots were magnified 11.5× under a microscope mounted horizontally and five digitized images captured every 5 min. Imaging software allowed determination of fluorescence of individual pixels along the length of the root. Fluorescence decreased in the zone of cell elongation due to dilution as cells expanded. This method may improve resolution of kinematic analysis to the length of individual pixels, which was 18 microns at 11.5× magnification.

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Dominic P. Petrella, James D. Metzger, Joshua J. Blakeslee, Edward J. Nangle and David S. Gardner

anthocyanins ( Deroles, 2009 ; He and Giusti, 2010 ; Wrolstad and Culver, 2012 ). Production of textiles, cosmetics, and solar panels are examples of industrial applications where anthocyanins are also being increasingly used to replace synthetic dyes ( Hao

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H.M. Ariyarathne, D.P. Coyne, A.K. Vidaver and K. Eskridge

The inheritance and heritability (H) of leaf and pods reactions and seed infection of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Smith) Dye (Xcp) were studied in three crosses along with flower and stem color, and the association of reactions to Xcp in the plant organs. Recombinant inbred lines from the crosses `PC 50' × XAN 159, BAC 6 × HT 7719, and BelNeb 1 × A 55 were used. Quantitative inheritance patterns were observed for disease reactions in leaves, pods, and seeds. Stem and flower color were inherited qualitatively. Low to intermediate and intermediate H estimates were found for pod reactions when inoculated on the same time, allowing the infection to occur in a uniform environment. Intermediate to high H estimates were found for leaf and seed reactions to Xcp, respectively. Significant positive intermediate to moderately high correlations were found between the reactions to Xcp of the first trifoliolate with later-developed leaves and pods in all three populations. The moderately high genetic correlations between leaves and pods suggested that some common genes may control the reactions to Xcp in these plant organs. No association was detected between flower or stem color and reactions to Xcp.

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Charleen M. Baker and William E. Dyer

Our goal was to develop efficient regeneration protocols for safflower that could be used in conjunction with Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation to introduce genes conferring economically important traits. Direct regeneration of whole plants has been achieved from cotyledon and hypocotyl explants of 30-day-old `Centennial' and `Montola' seedlings. Explants transformed with Ti plasmids containing NPTII and the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene produced kanamycin-resistant calli and shoots testing positive for GUS activity. Current work is incorporating the bar gene into appropriate Ti plasmids that will be used to confer glufosinate herbicide resistance to elite safflower cultivars. An esterase gene from Bacillus subtilis will be introduced to confer resistance to Alternaria carthami leaf spot disease.

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William J. Lamont Jr., Martin R. McGann, Michael D. Orzolek, Nymbura Mbugua, Bruce Dye and Dayton Reese

Plasticulture technology, especially high tunnels for extending the production period of a wide variety of horticultural crops, is an accepted production practice worldwide. In particular, high tunnels offer a production system that minimizes the effect of the environment on crop production and allows growers to continue to farm in densely populated areas. Only recently has the use of high tunnels in the U.S. been investigated and this research has been centered in the northeastern U.S. In 1999 the High Tunnel Research and Education Facility was established at Pennsylvania State University that resulted in the development of a unique high tunnel design. A detailed description of the new design and construction is presented in this report.

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William J. Lamont Jr., Michael D. Orzolek, E. Jay Holcomb, Kathy Demchak, Eric Burkhart, Lisa White and Bruce Dye

At the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) High Tunnel Research and Education Facility, a system of production of high-value horticultural crops in high tunnels has been developed that uses plastic mulch and drip irrigation. The Penn State system involves small-scale, plastic-application equipment that prepares and applies plastic mulch and drip-irrigation tape to individual raised beds. It differs from the production system developed by researchers at the University of New Hampshire in which drip-irrigation tape is manually applied to the soil surface and then the entire soil surface in the high tunnel is covered with a black plastic sheet. An overview of the production system used in the Penn State high tunnels is presented in this report.

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William J. Lamont Jr., Michael D. Orzolek, E. Jay Holcomb, Robert M. Crassweller, Kathy Demchak, Eric Burkhart, Lisa White and Bruce Dye

The Center for Plasticulture's High Tunnel Research and Education Facility was established at Pennsylvania State University in 1999. Since its inception, applied research has been conducted at this facility by a team of researchers and extension specialists on the development of a new high tunnel design. The development of crop production recommendations for vegetables, small fruits, tree fruits and cut flowers grown in high tunnels has been a priority. To complement the applied research program, an aggressive extension education program was developed to extend information on the technology of high tunnels to county extension personnel, growers, industry representatives, students, master gardeners and the general public. The extension programming effort consisting of demonstration high tunnels, field days, tours, in-service training, publications and presentations made at winter meetings will be discussed in the report below.