). Nitrate present in liquid fertilizer formulations is more likely to enrich drainage water as it is already dissolved ( Broschat, 1995 ; Wilson et al., 2010 ). Nitrogen enrichment of nursery runoff and drainage water can have major effects on nursery
P. Chris Wilson and Joseph P. Albano
Jeb S. Fields, William C. Fonteno, Brian E. Jackson, Joshua L. Heitman, and James S. Owen Jr.
comparison. Samples were saturated with tap water in a stepwise fashion and allowed to equilibrate for 48 h before drainage. Samples were then allowed to freely drain for an additional 48 h with water effluent volumes recorded. Pressures of 2.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7
Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes, and James C. Thomas
Golf putting greens and sports fields that are designed to use a geotextile to retain a sand-based root zone mixture atop a drainage layer are an alternative to the popular design recommended by the U.S. Golf Association (USGA) where the root zone
S. Shukla, B.J. Boman, R.C. Ebel, P.D. Roberts, and E.A. Hanlon
reductions in the drainage and runoff flow volumes and associated nutrient mass from production fields to the farm outlet. Examples of these approaches vary from reducing drainage volume to the retention, detention, and recycling of stormwater. The goal of
Mathews L. Paret, Ryo Kubota, Daniel M. Jenkins, and Anne M. Alvarez
released into drainage water when infected ginger plants were grown in potting medium ( Paret et al., 2008a ). However, no studies have reported survival of the ginger strains of Rs in field soil following different types of inoculation and under different
Donna C. Fare and W. Edgar Davis
One component of container production influencing the water quality concerns in the nursery industry is the amount of container effluent leaching from the container substrate. Potential exists for reduced water use, less leachate volume, and improved irrigation efficiency by altering the container design. This research compares the container leachate volume from a standard, 11.31 (# 3) container with seven 1.9-cm-diameter drainage holes to containers with one, three, or five holes with diameters of 1.9, 0.9, and 0.5 cm. Leachate volume was 41% less (312 to 182 mL) when the diameter of the drainage hole was reduced from 1.9 to 0.5 cm. Nitrate-N was 85% less (3093 to 452 mg) when the container drainage holes were reduced to 0.5 cm. Plant growth and quality of Lagerstroemia fauriei X L. indica `Hopi', crapemyrtle, was similar in all container modifications.
Vincent Pelletier, Steeve Pepin, Thomas Laurent, Jacques Gallichand, and Jean Caron
rainfall or sprinkler frost protection, but drainage systems can also be used for subirrigation where the water table depth is controlled by adding water in drain tiles. Historically, cranberries were grown under wet conditions with shallow water tables
Jesús Valencia and Donald M. May
An irrigation water study was conducted in the West side of Fresno County to evaluate the impact of recycled drainage water nitrogen and salinity content in the growth of direct seeded processing tomatoes to reduce nitrate-ground water pollution. Four canal water treatments (0.4 dS/m) received 0, 67.5, 101.2, and 168.7 kg of nitrogen per hectare and four saline water treatments (7.01 dS/m) received 0, 33.7, 67.5 and 135.0 kg nitrogen per hectare. All treatments were established with fresh canal water, and at first flower half of treatments were switched to saline water. The nitrogen content of water had an average of 283 ppm N-NO3 for the canal water and the drainage water contained 4489 ppm N-NO3. There was no significant yield differences between the irrigation methods and the two N-fertilizer sources applied to the tomatoes. However, drainage water produced a significant increase in fruit soluble solids (5.05 Av.) in comparison to canal water and synthetic fertilizer (4.3 Av.). The overall fruit quality and maturity was better in the drainage water treatments than it was in the fresh canal water with synthetic N-applied treatments.
J.P. Mitchell, D.M. May, and C. Shennan
Field studies were conducted in 1992 and 1993 to assess the effects of irrigation with saline drainage water on processing-tomato fruit yields and quality constituents. Saline water (ECiw = 7 dS/m) was used for 66% of the seasonal irrigation requirements in 1992 and 82% in 1993. Yields of tomatoes irrigated with saline water were maintained relative to nonsaline irrigation in 1992, but were decreased by 33% in 1993. Juice Brix and Bostwick consistency were generally improved by irrigation with saline water. pH was unaffected by irrigation treatment, and titratable acidity, an estimate of citric acid content, was increased only in 1993. Calculated quantities for various marketable processed product yields reflect the dominant influence of fresh fruit yield that masked, to a large extent, whatever quality enhancements that may have derived from saline irrigation. The substantial tomato yield reduction that occurred in the second year of this study in plots irrigated with saline drainage water, the gradual surface accumulation of boron, as well as the significant salt buildup in lower portions of the crop root zone following drainage water irrigations demonstrate definitive limitations to the reuse approach and restrict options for the crops that can be grown in this system and the frequency of saline drainage reuse.
Marion J. Packett, Alex X. Niemiera, J. Roger Harris, and Ronald F. Walden
Growers report that plants on gravel bed surfaces require more frequent irrigation compared to plastic surfaces. The objective of Expt. 1 was to determine if bed surface type influenced container environment and plant growth of azalea and Japanese holly plants on plastic- or gravel-covered beds. Measurements included bed, substrate, and plant canopy temperatures; evapotranspiration (ET), stem water potential, and plant widths also were determined. The objective of Expt. 2 was to determine the amount of water retained following irrigation and drainage for four pre-irrigation substrate water contents (230%, 208%, 185%, 162%; mass basis) on gravel or plastic bed surfaces. Containers on plastic or gravel beds were irrigated, drained for 1 hour, and the amount of water retained in the container substrate was determined. In Expt. 1, plastic bed surface temperatures (0730 to 1930 hr) were higher than for gravel. Container substrate temperatures on plastic were 1°C higher than gravel from 2300 to 0400 hr with no temperature differences from 0500 to 2300 hr. There were no treatment differences for other characteristics. In Expt. 2, containers on plastic retained 21%, 15%, 23%, and 16% more water than on gravel for the 230%, 208%, 185%, 162% pre-irrigation water content treatments, respectively. When containers are seated on plastic, the bottom drainage hole is sealed resulting in more water retention compared to gravel.