The design of a type of drainage lysimeter, as tested with trees of Pyrus serotina Rehder var. culta Rehder `Hosui' is described. All lysimeter operations and monitoring of irrigation and drainage volumes were managed by a “multi-tasking” controller/datalogger. It was possible to apply different irrigation levels to each of three sets of four random lysimeters. Evapotranspiration (ET) was calculated using a conservation of water equation, with differences between irrigation inputs and drainage outputs corrected for changes in soil-water content. ET ranged between 3.3 and 10.7 liters/tree per day in well-watered, noncropped trees in late Summer and Fall 1990. These rates correspond to ET of 0.13 to 0.43 liter·cm-2·day-1 and 0.96 to 3.10 liters·m-2·day-1 on trunk cross-sectional area and canopy area bases, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ET and Class A pan evaporation was >0.9 during this period. Weekly crop coefficients for the well-watered trees averaged 0.52 when calculated on a canopy-area basis. When irrigation was withheld for 18 days, the crop coefficient declined to 0.38. There were no differences in ET between trees growing in the two soil profiles, despite significant differences in soil water distribution.
David J. Chalmers, Preston K. Andrews, Kevin M. Harris, Ewen A. Cameron and Horst W. Caspari
C. D. Stanley, G. A. Clark, E. E. Albregts and F. S Zazueta
Sixteen field-located drainage lysimeters (each 60 cm wide, 2.44 m long, 60 cm deep) designed specifically for determination of water requirements for fruiting strawberry production (season - Oct to April) were installed in 1986. Each lysimeter was equipped with individual micro-irrigation and drainage collection systems automated for minimal management input. Initially, computer control (using a low-cost microcomputer) was used to continuously check switching-tensiometers located in each lysimeter and apply irrigation water as needed, A drainage suction (-10 MPa) was applied continuously to simulate field drainage conditions. Manually-installed lysimeter covers were used to protect the plots from interference from rainfall when needed, Initial irrigation application treatments were set at four levels of soil moisture tension controlled by tensiometers and were measured using flow meters for each lysimeter. This paper will discuss problems that were experienced with the initial setup (difficulty in measuring actual application amounts, tensiometer and computer control, elimination of rainfall interference, uniformity of irrigation application, and salinity in the rooting zone) and the modifications (pressurized reservoir tanks, construction of motorized rain-out shelter, micro-irrigation emitters used, and fertilization program) which have been made to overcome them,
Aparna Gazula, Eric Simonne, Michael Dukes, George Hochmuth, Bob Hochmuth and David Studstill
Collecting leachate from lysimeters installed in the field below vegetable fields may be used to quantify the amount of nitrogen released into the environment. Because limited information exists on the optimal design type and on the effect of design components on lysimeter performance, the objective of this study were to identify existing designs and their limits, assess cost of design, and test selected designs. Ideally, lysimeters should be wide enough to collect all the water draining, long enough to reflect the plant-to-plant variability, durable enough to resist degradation, deep enough to allow for cultural practices and prevent root intrusion, have a simple design, be made of widely available materials, and be cost-effective. Also, lysimeters should not restrict gravity flow thereby resulting in a perched water table. Previous study done with a group of free-drainage lysimeters (1-m-long, 45-cm-wide, installed 45-cm-deep) under a tomato-pumpkin-rye cropping sequence resulted in variable frequency of collection and volume of leachate collected (CV of load = 170%). Improving existing design may be done by increasing the length of collection, lining the lysimeter with gravel, limiting the depth of installation, and/or breaking water tension with a fiberglass wick. Individual lysimeter cost was estimated between $56 to $84 and required 9 to 14 manhours. for construction and installation. Costs on labor may be reduced when large numbers of lysimeters are built. Labor needed for sampling 24 lysimeters was 8 man-hr/sampling date. Because load may occur after a crop, lysimeter monitoring and sampling should be done year round.
S.M. Scheiber and Richard C. Beeson, Jr
coleus. Materials and methods ‘Yalaha’ coleus were obtained from a commercial nursery in 4-inch-diameter containers and transplanted on 9 June 2005 into drainage lysimeters and an uncovered companion field plot of deep, highly drained fine sand (Apopka
S.M. Scheiber, Richard C. Beeson Jr and Sudeep Vyapari
sandy soils to decrease irrigation requirements. Materials and Methods Pentas lanceolata Schum. ‘New Look Red’ were obtained from a commercial nursery in 0.72-L containers and transplanted on 3 Sept. 2003 into 12 drainage lysimeters made from
S.M. Scheiber, R.C. Beeson Jr, J. Chen, Q. Wang and B. Pearson
obtained from a commercial nursery in 0.72-L containers with six transplanted on 8 Aug. 2002 into each drainage lysimeter constructed from 246-L rigid plastic containers (Lerio Corp., Kissimmee, FL) placed in full sun. Each lysimeter had a diameter of 0
S.M. Scheiber and Richard C. Beeson Jr.
Petunia ×hybrida Vilm. `Midnight' plants were grown in drainage lysimeters to evaluate growth in response to alternative irrigation strategies. Irrigation treatments were tensiometer-regulated automatic irrigation systems, regularly scheduled irrigation using an automated controller, and human perception of plant irrigation need (manual watering). Mean irrigation volumes were reduced by manual watering and tensiometer-regulated treatments, compared to the automated controller. Total mean irrigation volume applied by the automated controller (460 L) was significantly greater than received by the manually watered (293 L) or tensiometer-regulated (286 L) treatments. Regularly scheduled irrigation using an automated controller resulted in higher assimilation rates, final shoot dry mass, final biomass, shoot to root ratios, and growth indices compared to other irrigation methods tested. Assimilation rates were significantly higher for tensiometer-controlled irrigation than the manually watered treatment, but no differences were reported between these two treatments for growth parameters. Visual observations indicated aesthetic quality was compromised among tensiometer-regulated and manually watered treatments relative to the automated controller treatment.
Eric Simonne, Chad Hutchinson, Jim DeValerio, Robert Hochmuth, Danielle Treadwell, Allan Wright, Bielinski Santos, Alicia Whidden, Gene McAvoy, Xin Zhao, Teresa Olczyk, Aparna Gazula and Monica Ozores-Hampton
leaching on water quality at the watershed level and play an important role in designing agricultural and environmental policies. Direct methods for calculating load at the field level are resin traps, soil sampling, or drainage lysimeters ( Farneselli et
Hongyan Sun, Kelly Kopp and Roger Kjelgren
closely follow ET o . Fig. 4. Monthly evapotranspiration (ET a ) (mean ± se , n = 3) of woody plants, turf, and perennials in mesic, mixed, and xeric landscapes constructed in large drainage lysimeters from May to October in 2009 and 2010 (Kaysville, UT
Adam D. Karl, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown, Rebecca A. Hervieux and Justine E. Vanden Heuvel
with four replicates. Alley sod type was the main plot, and under-vine treatment was the split-plot. Treatment panels in rows bordered by tall fescue alleys contained a drainage lysimeter placed between vines. These lysimeters were installed a year