Freitas et al., 2011 ), especially the distal tissue ( Barickman et al., 2014b ). Insufficient Ca uptake and movement in tomato fruit tissue can result in the physiological disorder BER, which is associated with a Ca deficiency in the distal fruit tissue
The influence of paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of GA synthesis, on kindertuber formation was studied using 13.5-month-old `Russet Burbank' potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. Suberized apical and distal tuber pieces of equal weight were sprayed daily with distilled water (control), 0.001 and 0.01 mg paclobutrazol/liter with or without 2.5 mg kinetin/liter, and 2.5 mg kinetin/liter alone. The tuber pieces were held in the dark (20C) and harvested 8, 16, and 22 days after the first treatment. Only sprouts developed from control apical piece eyes after 22 days. There was an average of 3.6 sprouts/eye, which, in total, weighed 735 mg. Sprouts (2.4/eye) from treated apical piece eyes averaged 46 mg. By 22 days, 0.001 mg paclobutrazol/liter plus kinetin applied to apical pieces resulted in the most kindertubers, 1.9/eye. The largest kindertubers (1.2 g) were produced from apical pieces treated with 0.001 mg paclobutrazol/liter. At each harvest and regardless of treatment, distal tuber pieces produced larger sprouts and more sprouts per eye than apical pieces. Kindertubers developed from distal piece eyes only with the paclobutrazol plus kinetin treatments. Distal eyes produced half as many kindertubers as apical eyes treated similarly. Apical pieces treated with kinetin alone produced fewer sprouts than control pieces, and fewer tubers than paclobutrazol-treated pieces. Sprout weight per eye of kinetin-treated apical pieces was one-third that produced by control pieces and 5.1-fold greater than that of paclobutrazol-treated pieces. A similar trend was observed with sprout weight from distal eyes. Results suggest lowered GA levels are involved in kindertuber formation on aged potato tubers, and GA content or metabolism of distal pieces is unlike that of apical pieces. Distal tuber pieces do not form kindertubers as readily as apical pieces.
The mineral concentration of bearing `Mejhool' date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) trees was investigated with the objective of identifying the cause of browning and dieback of distal parts of the fruit-bearing strands. Tissue analyses of leaves, fruits, healthy and dead portions of fruit-bearing strands indicated that tissue browning and dieback appeared to be associated with a high concentration of certain mineral elements. A comparison of mineral concentration between healthy and dead tissue of the fruit-bearing strands showed no significant increase in K, Cu, B, Zn, and Na, but very high increases in the concentrations of P, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, and Fe. The levels of P, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, and Fe in the distal part of the fruit-bearing strand over a 3-year average were 5, 18, 12, 3, 11, and 2 times, respectively, higher than those in the healthy, proximal part of the strand. Mineral concentrations of leaves and mature fruits were determined for comparison with those in fruit-bearing strands.
proximal hands and two distal hands from each bunch for irradiation treatment. The hands were labeled, transported immediately to the laboratory, and cut into clusters with four fruit per cluster. Irradiation treatment. The clusters from the
: 1) How long is the tree free of damage after removal of bunches? 2) Can the removal of the distal portion of the spikelet delay the peak of damage? 3) Can different forms of management of the bunches change the distribution pattern of damage? To
hybrids. Fifteen plants per cultivar were analyzed, and three fully opened flowers were sampled on each plant (45 flowers per cultivar). Colorimetric measurements and phenolic profiling were performed on three distinct flower segments: distal petal segment
lacquer was carefully peeled from the berries and leaves and placed on glass slides. For each berry sample, the berry was divided into the calyx and four equal spherical segments: the distal (calyx) end, distal-middle end, proximal-middle end, and proximal
+ deficiency disorders such as bitter pit in apple and BER in peppers, tomatoes, and watermelons ( Gilliham et al., 2011 ; White and Broadley, 2003 ). Initiation of BER often occurs in the distal portion of the fruit as water-soaked spots that eventually
orientation for the two interior rows was defined as distal ( Fig. 2 ). The soil type of this field was a combination of two silt loams, Huntington and Cumberland ( Soil Survey Staff, 2019 ). Fig. 2. Experimental plot. In 2016, the conventional sprayer
research has been conducted on the WSV content of different sweetpotato root tissues. An earlier study reported no gradient in thiamin and riboflavin contents from proximal to distal ends of the root. However, thiamin was found more concentrated at 3 mm