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Angela M. Madeiras, Thomas H. Boyle, and Wesley R. Autio

germination ( Mycock and Berjak, 1995 ). The present study was conducted to determine the effects of cold stratification with prestratification, GA 3 , potassium nitrate, light, and surface disinfestation on the germination of Phlox pilosa seeds

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Dong Sub Kim, Mark Hoffmann, Steven Kim, Bertha A. Scholler, and Steven A. Fennimore

Mattner, 2002 ). Nonchemical tools such as biofumigants (e.g., mustard seed meal), physical treatments such as solarization, and flaming or biological control methods such as anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) have been proven to provide at least partial

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Marisa M. Wall

Study of disinfestation of bananas by gamma irradiation Food Tech. Australia 22 664 667 Federal Register 2006 Treatment for fruits and vegetables Rules and Regulations 71 4451 4464 27 Jan. 2006 Ferguson, W

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Tanner Donahoo, Lisha Zhang, Matthew Cutulle, and Abolfazl Hajihassani

healing chambers) ( Louws et al., 2010 ; Rivard et al., 2010b; Singh et al., 2017 ). Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is another technique that can be used in conjunction with grafting to cater to farmers’ growing food production needs to meet the

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Marisa M. Wall and Shakil A. Khan

tephritid fruit flies and therefore subject to quarantine restrictions. Hot forced air treatments have been proposed for dragon fruit disinfestation with minimal reduction in quality ( Hoa et al., 2006 ); however, irradiation generally is more efficient and

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Steven A. Fennimore, Frank N. Martin, Thomas C. Miller, Janet C. Broome, Nathan Dorn, and Ian Greene

). Adoption of steam disinfestation of field soils has been hindered by fuel consumption, labor, and application time required ( Samtani et al., 2012 ). Despite steam providing weed control, pathogen suppression, and yields similar to fumigated strawberries

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Lijia Shi, Jinghui Wang, Zhifeng Gao, Xin Zhao, Francesco Di Gioia, Haichao Guo, Jason Hong, Monica Ozores-Hampton, and Erin Rosskopf

effective soil disinfestation in horticultural crop production ( Butler et al., 2014 ). With the phase-out of methyl bromide, as part of the Montreal Protocol to reduce ozone depletion, research has focused on developing alternative chemical and biological

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Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo, and Erin N. Rosskopf

) are available, there is still a pressing need for effective, viable, and more sustainable options ( Shennan et al., 2014 ). Among the nonchemical alternatives, ASD, also known as “biological soil disinfestation” (Blok et al., 2000) or “reductive soil

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D. Grant McCarty II, Sarah E. Eichler Inwood, Bonnie H. Ownley, Carl E. Sams, Annette L. Wszelaki, and David M. Butler

Protocol ( UNEP, 1987 ) as well as increased costs for a reduced supply of available MeBr. Because there are limitations of alternative chemical soil fumigants, many growers would be amenable to implementing a non-chemical approach to soil disinfestation if

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Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher

conducted by Lang et al. (2008) demonstrated that free Cl concentration and ORP were important for disinfestation of Pythium aphanidermatum . Measurements of pH, free Cl concentration, and ORP are standard operating procedures to monitor to ensure