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Ronald K. Jones, Ann R. Chase, Melvin P. Garber, William G. Hudson, Jeffrey G. Norcini, and Kane Bondari

A national survey of the commercial ornamental industry was conducted to determine the current status of pest control including chemical and nonchemical disease control practices. The fungicides thiophanate methyl, chlorothalonil, mancozeb, and metalaxyl were used in the greatest quantity and by the largest percentage of growers. Metalaxyl was used in greenhouse and field operations by the highest percentage of growers, primarily to control root diseases but many growers reported using metalaxyl to control foliar disease. Overall, more fungicides were used in the field for foliar diseases, whereas almost equal amounts of fungicides were used for foliar and root diseases in the greenhouse.

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Mark A. Williams, John G. Strang, Ricardo T. Bessin, Derek Law, Delia Scott, Neil Wilson, Sarah Witt, and Douglas D. Archbold

leaves and fruit of apple scab–resistant cultivars exhibited disease or insect injury in a certified organic apple orchard. Quince rust ( Gymnosporangium clavipes ) caused the most damage, whereas damage from the major insect pests, codling moth and plum

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Stephen R. King, Angela R. Davis, Wenge Liu, and Amnon Levi

Grafting vegetable crops is a common practice in Asia and parts of Europe. It was initially introduced to control fusarium wilt in watermelon ( Murata and Ohara, 1936 ), but its use has expanded to include a variety of diseases on cucurbit and

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Monica L. Elliott

For many years, the palm disease spectrum in the Florida landscape had been relatively stable, with lethal yellowing (a phytoplasma disease caused by ‘ Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae’ subgroup 16SrIV-A) and ganoderma butt rot (a fungal disease

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H. Brent Pemberton, Kevin Ong, Mark Windham, Jennifer Olson, and David H. Byrne

Rose rosette disease is incited by a negative-sense RNA virus (genus Emaravirus ), which is vectored by a wind-dispersed eriophyid mite ( P. fructiphilus ) ( Di Bello et al., 2015a ; Laney et al., 2011 ). Symptoms on roses include witches broom

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Laban K. Rutto, Yixiang Xu, Shuxin Ren, Holly Scoggins, and Jeanine Davis

economically important pests and diseases ( Mahaffee et al., 2009 ) of which downy mildew ( Pseudoperonospora humuli ) and powdery mildew ( Podosphaera macularis ), both influenced by climatic factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and leaf wetness

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Kent M. Eskridge

55 COLLOQUIUM 2 (Abstr. 995-999) Classical and Molecular Approaches to Breeding Horticultural Plants for Disease Resistance

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Alireza Pourreza, Won Suk Lee, Mark A. Ritenour, and Pamela Roberts

Florida citrus industry has been threatened by several, previously exotic citrus diseases during the past few years. Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ), a bacterial disease, was discovered in 1995 near the Miami

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A. James Downer, Janice Y. Uchida, Donald R. Hodel, and Monica L. Elliott

where canary island date palm wilt is widespread, there have been no reports of mature, transplanted date palm of commerce with this disease in California, suggesting that mature date palms may not be susceptible to this pathogen. The pygmy date palm

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Marisa M. Wall and Joe N. Corgan

A 2-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and storage on fresh-market onion (Allium cepa L.) quality. Four short-day onion cultivars (`NuMex BR1', `NuMex Sunlite', `NuMex Starlite', and `Buffalo') were seeded in early October each year. Bulbs were harvested at five times; the first and second harvests were when 20% and 80 %, respectively, of the bulbs in a plot had mature necks; the third, fourth, and fifth harvests were at 5,10, and 15 days after the second harvest date, respectively. After curing for 3 days, bulb firmness, weight, and incidence of disease were evaluated for all harvests. Bulbs were re-evaluated after 10 and 20 days storage in a shed under ambient conditions. `Buffalo' and `NuMex Surdite' bulbs had the lowest incidence of disease before storage. For all cultivars, average bulb weight increased and firmness decreased with delayed harvest. Percent diseased bulbs increased for all cultivars as harvest was delayed in 1991 but not in 1992. The optimum harvest time was at 80% maturity. In storage, average bulb weight and firmness decreased, and the incidence of bulb diseases increased.