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S. Alan Walters, Kurt T. Range, Bradley H. Taylor and Wanki Moon

-quality, fresh produce and want to support local farmers ( Velasquez et al., 2005 ). Therefore, a survey was conducted in two direct-market venues to determine key attributes that influence Asian vegetable purchase decisions, including consumption habits and

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Mustafa Ozgen, Faith J. Wyzgoski, Artemio Z. Tulio Jr, Aparna Gazula, A. Raymond Miller, Joseph C. Scheerens, R. Neil Reese and Shawn R. Wright

ascertained the phenotypic variation among and within black raspberry cultivars commonly direct-marketed in the midwest. The goals of our study were as follows: 1) to measure the antioxidant capacity and to quantify total phenolic and anthocyanin constituents

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Charles D. Safley, E. Barclay Poling, Michael K. Wohlgenant, Olga Sydorovych and Ross F. Williams

The costs associated with growing, harvesting and marketing strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa) using the plasticulture production system were estimated to be $13,540/acre ($33,457/ha). Net revenue analysis showed that growers would have to charge at least $0.85 and $1.40/lb ($1.87 to $3.09/kg) for pick-your-own (PYO) and prepicked fruit, respectively, and sell 12,000 lb of berries per acre (13,449.9 kg·ha-1) to cover this expense. Break-even analysis indicated that growers would have to charge a PYO price of $0.65/lb ($1.43/kg) and $1.20/lb ($2.64/kg) for prepick berries and sell a minimum of 15,041 lb/acre (16,858.4 kg·ha-1) to cover the projected expenses. However, if a grower received $0.95 and $1.50/lb ($2.09 and $3.31/kg) for the PYO and prepicked fruit, respectively, he/she would only have to sell 10,622 lb of berries per acre (11,905.4 kg·ha-1) to break even. It was assumed that an average of 11.6 lb (5.26 kg) of fruit would be sold to PYO customers and an average of 7.1 lb (3.22 kg) would be sold to customers who visited the fruit stand. Under these assumptions, the breakeven yield of 14,724 lb/acre translates into a requirement to sell fruit to at least 1,539 customers per acre (3,802.8 customers/ha) at the lowest combination of prices while a yield of 10,398 lb/acre converts to a minimum of 1,087 customers per acre (2,685.9 customers/ha) at the higher prices. Customers were also surveyed at direct market operations in Spring 1999 to gain insight into consumer demographic characteristics, why customers select a specific PYO or prepick direct market strawberry outlet, average expenditures per customer, typical driving distances to direct market strawberry operations, and the effectiveness of advertising. Middle age, middle-income customers living within 10 miles (16.1 km) of the farm comprised the largest percentage of customers surveyed at the PYO operations, while middle age, high-income individuals who also live within 10 miles of the fruit stand were the largest group of respondents at the fruit stands. PYO customers spent an average of $10.30, and prepick consumers spent an average of $9.40 per visit. Less than 23% of all the respondents said that advertising influenced their shopping decision while >77% indicated that any type of advertisement did not influence their decision. Overall, convenient location was easily the major reason that customers decided to patronize a specific direct market outlet while personal referrals were second.

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David S. Conner and Kathleen Demchak

Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) and caneberries (Rubus sp.) are popular crops that can bring revenue to farms and may improve farm profitability. High and low tunnels can bring a number of benefits to growers, including season extension and improved berry yield and quality, as well as management challenges. Few studies in the literature report directly on grower experiences using tunnels. We report the results of interviews of 10 independent growers who use tunnels to produce strawberries and caneberries. The results echo previous studies finding improved yield and quality, and highlight benefits and challenges around pest, weed, and nutrient management. One novel finding is the role of season extension in creating marketing opportunities. Interviewed growers caution of a learning curve and the need to start on a small scale and grow gradually. Future focus for research should include improved ventilation and mechanization.

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Gregory M. Peck, Ian A. Merwin, Michael G. Brown and Arthur M. Agnello

, tractor drivers, and truck drivers. The same hourly rates were used for all 4 years of this experiment. Potential market value of fruit. Potential prices received for marketable fruit were estimated for two venues: a direct market operation such as

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Tiffany L. Maughan, Kynda R. Curtis, Brent L. Black and Daniel T. Drost

roadside stands to avoid competing with lower wholesale prices ( Gunter et al., 2012 ; Yeager, 2013 ). Consumers are willing to pay price premiums for local foods at direct markets, especially when available outside of the normal season, providing growers

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S. Alan Walters

crop for direct markets in the midwestern United States. The popularity of garlic has increased in recent years, probably resulting from consumer familiarity, as it is widely used as an ingredient in many culinary dishes and provides many health

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Suzanne Stone, George Boyhan and Cecilia McGregor

and thus must be purchased from seed companies each season. Due to these realized and perceived benefits, organic, direct-market, and home growers have inspired a renewed interest in OP cultivars ( Phillips, 2016 ). Today, farmer-maintained landraces

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

, whereas crisphead lettuce is shipped from the western United States ( Ryder, 2002 ). Many direct-market growers use high tunnels to extend their production season and increase farm income ( Bruce et al., 2017 ; Martinez et al., 2010 ). Lettuce is the

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J.M. Kemble, P. Sanders, W. Foshee and D. Fields

High tunnels (HT) can reduce negative environmental strains on crop production and have been shown to extend the growing season for many small fruits and vegetables. Because HTs require relatively low initial investment compared with standard greenhouse structures, they are well suited for the small to mid-size grower. HTs provide a practical means of entry into intensive crop production for farmers who direct market their produce. By using HTs, direct market farmers may create a special marketing niche which set's them apart by offering locally grown vegetables, cut flowers, small fruits, and herbs earlier in the growing season and into the fall after frost. This project examined 1) the potential use of HTs for the production of fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and strawberries (Fragaria spp.) and 2) the seasonal market potential for these crops in Alabama. Viable markets were determined by conducting surveys at regional locations throughout Alabama, such as farmers markets, grocery stores, shopping centers, etc. Upscale restaurants were also surveyed to determine the demand for locally grown herbs. These surveys were used to determine target markets by asking demographic questions and determining spending habits. Justification for establishing a direct farmer-to-consumer market or a direct farmer to restaurant market for HT products was determined.