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Deepak K. Khandka, Ali Nejidat, Moshe Tal and Avi Golan-Goldhirsh

Several horticulturally important species are dioecious (e.g., pistachio, date palm, poplar, and others). It would be advantageous if the gender of a seedling could be determined at the vegetative stage. In this report, we present results of our search for molecular markers for sex differentiation in dioecious species. The method used was bulked segregant analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for sex. A male-specific marker fragment OPB01-1470 was obtained in Mercurialis annua. The sex linkage and characterization of this marker will be discussed.

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Ashley K. Brantley, James D. Spiers, Andrew B. Thompson, James A. Pitts, J. Raymond Kessler Jr., Amy N. Wright and Elina D. Coneva

. chinensis are functionally dioecious species that require interplanting of female and male plants for sufficient pollination to promote commercial fruit size ( Grant et al., 1994 ). Pollination is the most influential factor affecting fruit size and yield

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A. Estilai and A. Hashemi

Typical female jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] plants produce three-carpeled fruit that contain one to three seeds. Examination of ≈13,000 plants in a nursery at the Univ. of California, Riverside, revealed one mutant plant whose distillate flowers had four stigmas and four-carpeled fruit. The mutant plant had 42% one-seeded, 39% two-seeded, and 19% three-seeded fruit. In contrast, wild-type sibling plants averaged 83% one-seeded, 16% two-seeded, and 1% three-seeded fruit. The additional carpel in these fruit did not result in production of four seeds per fruit, but drastically altered the frequency of one-, two-, and three-seeded fruit in the mutant plant. This fruit character may serve as a useful genetic marker and, since about one-fifth of the fruit produce three seeds, it maybe useful in studies of multipaternal effects on seed development and seed-oil quality and quantity.

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David A. Munter, James J. Luby and Neil O. Anderson

.d. ). Floral morphology in Z. americanum reportedly is structurally dioecious, with pistillate and staminate flowers on separate plants, but reports of hermaphrodism (having flowers with functional stamens and pistils) also occur ( Ainsworth, 2000 ; Felter

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Hailin Shen, Zhendong Liu, Ke Yan, Liren Zou, Jinghui Wen, Yinshan Guo, Kun Li and Xiuwu Guo

The wild amur grape is a dioecious species, mostly cultivated for wine production in China ( Song et al., 2000 ). It is the hardiest species within the genus Vitis and can tolerate temperatures as low as −40 °C ( Jiao et al., 2015 ; Ma et al

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Richard Manshardt

south as northern Costa Rica ( Manshardt and Zee, 1994 ). Wild papayas are dioecious, and the fruits borne on pistillate plants are small (less than 100 g) and seedy with very little edible flesh. Human selection for self-pollinating hermaphrodite

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Jennifer Han, Jan E. Murray, Qingyi Yu, Paul H. Moore and Ray Ming

formation of males flowers in many dioecious species, including Spinacia oleracea ( Chailakhyan and Khryanin, 1978a ), Cannabis sativa ( Chailakhyan and Khrianin, 1978b ; Mohan Ram and Jaiswal, 1972 ), Rumex actosella L ( Bavrina et al., 1991 ), and

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Dawei Shi, Xiaodong Wei, Guoxiang Chen and Yanli Xu

the integrity of photosynthetic membranes under oxidative stress ( Kuk et al., 2003 ). Many morphological, physiological, and ecological differences between males and females have been observed in a number of dioecious species in relation to

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Qian Bai, Shuchai Su, Zhu Lin, Pingsheng Leng and Wenhao Wang

some are shrubs; leaves are alternate, pinnate, and leathery; female and male flowers are on separate trees (i.e., they are dioecious); pistillate flowers are borne in loose axillary panicles and staminate flowers are axillary and more compact; and the

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ChihCheng T. Chao and Robert R. Krueger

palm originates from its fruit; “phoenix” from the Greek means purple or red (fruit), and “dactylifera” refers to the finger-like appearance of the fruit bunch. Date palm is dioecious, meaning it has separate female and male trees. Throughout the years