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Sunggil Kim*, Marla Binzel, Sunghun Park, Kil-Sun Yoo, and Leonard Pike

Anthocyanin, one of the flavonoids, is a primary determinant of red color in onions. Inheritance studies indicate that a single gene determines the color difference between yellow and red onions. In order to establish which gene might be responsible for this color difference, full-length cDNAs of five structural genes: chalcone synthase (CHS), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and flavonol synthase (FLS) were cloned using degenerate PCR and RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). RT-PCR was carried out for these five genes to examine differential expression between yellow and red colored bulbs. Accumulation of the DFR gene transcript only occurred in red onions. In F3 populations which originated from the cross between yellow and red parents, DFR transcript was detected only in red F3 lines, not in yellow F3 lines. To design molecular markers for selection of yellow and red DFR alleles, the DFR gene was sequenced from genomic DNA isolated from both types of onions. The genomic DNA sequence revealed the DFR gene consists of six exons and five introns. A PCR-RFLP marker was designed based on 2% polymorphic nucleotide sequence of the DFR gene between yellow and red onions. The co-segregation of markers and red color were observed in F2 segregating populations, supporting the conclusion that color difference in red and yellow onions is likely to be due to the lack of an active DFR gene.

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Rasika G. Mudalige-Jayawickrama, Michele M. Champagne, A. David Hieber, and Adelheid R. Kuehnle

kind support and providing facilities for radioactive work. Two new gene sequences were submitted to GenBank. Accession numbers are AY741318 and AY741319 for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene and chalcone synthase gene, respectively.

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Anil Khar, Jernej Jakse, and Michael J. Havey

. (2004a , 2005c ) correlated expression and segregation of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) with yellow versus red bulb colors. In a confusing series of papers, variation at anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) was associated first with a new recessive locus

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Huiling Wang, Wei Wang, Weidong Huang, and Haiying Xu

.5.1.6) plays a major role in the cyclization reaction from chalcones to flavanones ( Wang et al., 2012 ). Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (EC 1.1.1.219), a “later” key enzyme, catalyzes the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent conversion of

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Yanjie Wang, Yeqing Chen, Man Yuan, Zeyun Xue, Qijiang Jin, and Yingchun Xu

, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) are the key enzymes responsible for cyanidin and delphinidin. The synthesized anthocyanidins undergo several modifications by uridine diphosphate (UDP)–glucose:flavonoid glucosyltransferase and

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Jan Bizjak, Nika Weber, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Zobayer Alam, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth, and Robert Veberic

= chalcone synthase; FHT = flavanone-3-hydroxylase; DFR = dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. The significant influence of Pho Ca was seen only in the case of DFR ( P = 0.01), in which the average activity (nkat·g −1 FW) during ripening in the treated apples (0

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Dineshkumar Selvaraj, Sherif Sherif, Mohd Sabri Pak Dek, Gopinadhan Paliyath, Islam El-Sharkawy, and Jayasankar Subramanian

-flowered plants by genetic engineering of multiple flavonoid biosynthetic genes Plant Cell Rpt. 26 1951 1959 Polashock, J.J. Griesbach, R.J. Sullivan, R.F. Vorsa, N. 2002 Cloning of a cDNA encoding the cranberry dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) and expression in

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David Gopaulchan, Adrian M. Lennon, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

), flavone synthase ( FNS ), flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase ( F3 ′ H ), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase ( DFR ), anthocyanidin synthase ( ANS ), UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3- O -glucosyltransferase ( 3GT ), and 3-rhamnosyl transferase ( 3RT

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Hongmei Ma, Margaret Pooler, and Robert Griesbach

biosynthesis genes. Six enzymes are generally involved in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway: chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), and UDP

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Xiaoying Dou, Jinrong Bai, Huan Wang, Ying Kong, Lixin Lang, Fang Bao, and Hongzhong Shang

include chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) ( Nie et al., 2015 ). CHS and CHI are early enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, and DFR and ANS are late enzymes. The activity