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Ying Gao, Hao Liu, and Dong Pei

staminate inflorescence requires ≈1 year from the time of initiation to maturation. However, the differentiation course varies by cultivar and climate ( Polito and Katherine, 1997 ; Zhang et al., 1995 ). Marker characteristics should be linked genetically

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Weiting Huang and Zhongming Fang

commercial production. Tissue culture is a rapid and efficient way to propagate C. goeringii . During propagation of C. goeringii , mature seeds are often used as the material to obtain sterile rhizomes for further proliferation and differentiation. The

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Jianjun Zhang, Wei Zhu, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, Yongming Fan, and Xiaonan Yu

events are controlled by multiple genetic factors ( Ge et al., 2014 ), and these are influenced by seasonal changes in daylength and temperature ( Zhang et al., 2015 ). The differentiation of floral buds during autumn until the following spring must go

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Ying Gao, Hao Liu, Ningguang Dong, and Dong Pei

The plant hormone and signaling molecule auxin plays a key role during flower formation, organogenesis, and diverse physiological processes ( Kamil et al., 2007 ; Valentina et al., 2008 ; Wu et al., 2008 ). The course of flower bud differentiation

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Shadia Nada, Siva Chennareddy, Stephen Goldman, Sairam Rudrabhatla, Shobha Devi Potlakayala, Puthyaparambil Josekutty, and Karelia Deepkamal

. Statistically significant differences between treatments were observed. Thidiazuron was more effective than BAP. In the absence of auxin, no shoot bud differentiation was observed at 1.0 mg·L −1 BAP in either leaves or petioles ( Figs. 2 and 3 ). In contrast

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D. Struss, M. Boritzki, R. Karle, and A.F. Iezzoni

Two rootstocks from the Giessen (GiSelA) series of dwarfing cherry (Prunus sp.) rootstocks, GiSelA (GI) 5 (syn. 148/2) and GI 6 (syn. 148/1), are becoming commercially important and five other Giessen cherry rootstocks are being evaluated for horticultural traits. Since GI 5 and GI 6 are morphologically similar, a DNA fingerprinting project was undertaken to identify molecular markers that could be used by the nursery industry to differentiate these two rootstocks. The project was extended to include six additional Giessen rootstocks of varying pedigrees. Fourteen DNA primer pairs were tested for their ability to differentiate among the eight rootstocks. None of the primer pairs could differentiate all eight rootstock selections; however, three primer pairs could differentiate all but two selections. Two primer pairs, PMS 15 and PceGA59, were identified as the most suitable for high throughput screening of GI 5 and GI 6 due to the simplicity and the size of the base pair differences among the polymorphic fragments. These results demonstrate the utility of molecular markers to differentiate the Giessen cherry rootstocks.

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Yair Erner

Lack of carbohydrate has long been held to be a factor contributing to poor return bloom when fruits are “stored” on the tree for a prolonged period or after an “on” year crop. It is well-documented that in a number of nodes sited along a fruiting branch basipetal to a growing fruit, no bloom occurs in the following season.

During a year's monitoring buds from an “on” year of 'Shamouti' orange and Murcott mandarin had the same level of soluble sugars and starch as from “off” year. While, leaves of 'Shamouti' did not show any differences in soluble sugars and starch with “on” and “off” years, Murcott had twice as much starch in the leaves from “off” year. Sucrose has been found to be the major sugar, with glucose up to 1/10 of sucrose and very minute amounts of glucose. Reproductive buds contained less soluble sugars than vegetative with no significant differences between basal and top buds from either type of branches. Results will be discussed in terms of carbohydrate effects on bud differentiation toward flowering. Supported by BARD No. I-1643-89.

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Chitose Honsho, Keizo Yonemori, Akira Sugiura, Songpol Somsri, and Suranant Subhadrabandhu

Flower bud differentiation and the flowering habit of durian (Durio zibethinus Murray) `Mon Thong' from budbreak to anthesis were investigated at the Chantaburi Horticultural Research Center in Thailand. Clusters of flower buds appeared at the end of November on primary or secondary scaffold branches near where a flower cluster occurred the previous year. Anatomical observations revealed that the development of floral organs was acropetal; the five fused epicalyx forming a large, elongated envelope enclosing the sepals, petals, stamen and fused multi-carpellate pistil. Floral organ development was completed in early January. The mature flower bud more than doubled in size one day before anthesis, with anthesis starting around 1600 hr and ending ≈1900 hr. The anthers did not dehisce until the completion of flowering. This change induced heterostyly in this cultivar, which promoted out-crossing by reducing the possibility of self-pollination. Aromatic nectar that attracted insects to the flower was secreted during anthesis. This is the first report to have clarified the overall flowering process in durian and provides the basic information for elucidating reproductive biology of durian in future research.

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David M. Czarnecki II, Madhugiri Nageswara Rao, Jeffrey G. Norcini, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr, and Zhanao Deng

” (presence of bands) for each individual plant was analyzed using population genetics computer programs to calculate the genetic diversity within populations, genetic differentiation among populations, genetic relationships among populations, and historical

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Anna L. Hale, Mark W. Farnham, and Monica A. Menz

Breeders of cole crops (Brassica oleracea L.) have an interest in utilizing current and emerging PCR-based marker systems to differentiate elite germplasm. However, until efficiency and cost-effectiveness are determined, most breeders are hesitant to change methods. In this study, our goal was to compare simple sequence repeat (SSR), amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) marker systems for their effectiveness in differentiating a diverse population of 24 elite broccoli (B. oleracea Italica Group) inbreds. Published SSR primer sequences for Brassica L. species were used along with AFLP and SRAP primer combinations. Several SSR primers failed to amplify DNA in the broccoli population, but all AFLP and SRAP primer combinations produced multiple bands. Twenty-nine percent of the SSR primers were monomorphic, while most of the remaining primers detected only one or two differences among inbreds. AFLP and SRAP methods produced multiple differences per primer in almost every case. Phenetic analysis revealed that the type of marker affected the classification of the genotypes. All three marker systems were able to successfully differentiate between the 24 elite inbreds, however, AFLPs and SRAPs were more efficient, making them better alternatives than SSRs over other established methods for fingerprinting B. oleracea inbreds.