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Sarah E. Dixon, Jerri L. Henry, Dean S. Volenberg, and Reid J. Smeda

Plant growth regulator herbicides such as dicamba are used for selective control of many broadleaf weed species. The introduction of dicamba-tolerant (DT) soybean ( Glycine max ) and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) in 2016 and the increase in

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Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, Greg Endres, Brian Jenks, Michael Ostlie, Theresa Reinhardt, Andrew Robinson, John Stenger, and Richard Zollinger

Dicamba is commonly used as a postemergence herbicide in corn ( Zea mays ), small grains, and pastures. Recent advances have led to the development of dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) cultivars to combat glyphosate

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M. Lenny Wells, Eric P. Prostko, and O. Wendell Carter

genetically modified crops, including cotton, field corn, soybean, and canola with resistance to dicamba and 2,4-D herbicides has been developed to address the problem of glyphosate-resistant weeds ( Behrens et al., 2007 ; Wright et al., 2010 ). In the few

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Donnie K. Miller, Thomas M. Batts, Josh T. Copes, and David C. Blouin

) salt of dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) (alone or in combination with glyphosate) over the top of crops that were previously intolerant to these two herbicides. Soybean ( Glycine max ), cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ), and corn ( Zea mays

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Brian Dintelmann, David Trinklein, and Kevin Bradley

combat herbicide-resistant weeds, agrochemical companies have developed soybean and cotton that are resistant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba ( Behrens et al., 2007 ; Wright et al., 2010 ). Recent deregulation of dicamba and 2,4-D

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Michele R. Warmund, David H. Trinklein, Mark R. Ellersieck, and Reid J. Smeda

and dicamba, were created to decrease their volatility in the environment ( Sosnoskie et al., 2015 ). The diglycolamine salt of dicamba and choline salt of 2,4-D choline are two formulations that have been used on genetically modified soybeans and

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Carl W. Coburn, Albert T. Adjesiwor, and Andrew R. Kniss

herbicide chemistry. For example, Panke et al. (2012) report that labeled rates of dicamba or picloram can provide control of creeping bellflower, but Moechnig et al. (2007) report that commercially available synthetic auxin herbicides only provide

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Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Paul Mayland

Greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare visible injury from sublethal rates of 2,4-D, dicamba, and a premixed product of 2,4-D + mecoprop + dicamba for eight annual flowers and to describe herbicide injury symptoms for these annual species. Herbicides were applied at rates 0.05×, 0.1×, and 0.2× of their highest labeled rate for turfgrass to simulate spray drift conditions. Visible injury varied between species, herbicide rate, and time after herbicide application. Alyssum (Lobularia maritima Desv.) showed the greatest initial injury and ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum Mill.) showed the greatest injury at 4 weeks after treatment. Symptom severity increased as herbicide rate increased, with the greatest injury from the premixed product, followed by 2,4-D, and then dicamba. The eight species varied in their degree of visible injury and flower production to dicamba, 2,4-D, and the premixed product. Reduced flowering was most obvious for prolific flowering species such as alyssum. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana L.), salvia (Salvia splendens Sello), and snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) produced more flowers in response to sublethal dicamba rates compared to the untreated plant. All rates of 2,4-D generally reduced flowering compared to untreated plants, except the lowest rate of 2,4-D for geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum Bailey) and snapdragon. Dahlia (Dahlia hortensis Cav.) sprayed with dicamba at the highest rate produced three times as many stems as plants untreated or those sprayed with 2,4-D. Overall order of species susceptibility to sublethal rates of dicamba, 2,4-D, or the premixed product from most susceptible to least susceptible was ageratum > alyssum > marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) > dahlia > geranium = salvia = snapdragon = impatiens. Differences in overall susceptibility to the plant growth regulator herbicides evaluated should provide useful information to horticulturalists designing annual flower beds and borders and lawn care applicators.

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Richard P. Marini, Ross E. Byers, Donald L. Sowers, and Rodney W. Young

Five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were treated with dicamba at concentrations of 0 to 200 mg·liter-1 during 3 years. Although the response varied with cultivar, dose, and year, dicamba always delayed fruit abscission. At similar concentrations, dicamba usually reduced fruit drop more than NAA, but less than fenoprop. Dicamba at 10 mg·liter-1 effectively delayed drop of `Delicious', whereas 20 to 30 mg·liter-1 was required for `Red Yorking', `Rome', `Winesap', and `Stayman'. Dicamba did not influence flesh firmness, soluble solids content, water core, or starch content at harvest or after storage. Chemical names used: naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (fenoprop); 3,6dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba).

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Joseph E. Beeler, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Jose J. Vargas, William E. Klingeman, Rebecca M. Koepke-Hill, Gary E. Bates, Dean A. Kopsell, and Phillip C. Flanagan

·ha −1 acid equivalent) or Myrothecium verucaria alone controlled trumpetcreeper 45% and 30%, respectively ( Boyette et al., 2008 ). Bradley et al. (2003) reported that reduced rates of two mimics of indole-3-acetic acid, dicamba (280 g·ha −1 ) and 2