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Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu

together with NAA in bulb scale cultures of Lilium ledebourii ( Bakhshaie et al., 2010 ) and Muscari azureum ( Uranbey et al., 2010 ). To the best of our knowledge, the development characteristics and formation process of the T. edulis stolon remain

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Carol Cammack, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The objective of this study was to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the self-esteem, locus of control, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school of participating juvenile offenders. Participants in the Green Brigade program had significantly lower scores than the comparative group on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school prior to and after completion of the Green Brigade program. Although the Green Brigade participants' scores were significantly lower than the comparative group's scores, the means were still considered `normal' for their age group. However, adolescents participating in coed sessions, where the hands-on activities involved plant materials, displayed more positive interpersonal relationship scores than participants in an all male session where the hands-on activities focused on the installation of hardscape materials and a lack of plant materials. No significant differences were found in rates of repeated crimes of juvenile offenders participating in the Green Brigade program when compared to juvenile offenders participating in traditional probationary programming.

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Daniel Hargey, Benjamin Wherley, Andrew Malis, James Thomas, and Ambika Chandra

potentially improving success of newly planted sod in the context of tight establishment timelines. The objectives of this greenhouse study were to 1) evaluate the effects of mowing and TE application on shoot growth, final turf quality, and root development

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Jeffrey G. Williamson, Gerard Krewer, Brian E. Maust, and E. Paul Miller

Experiments were conducted in north Florida and south Georgia to determine the effects of H2CN2 sprays on vegetative and reproductive growth of blueberry. In Florida, mature, field-grown `Misty' southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L. hybrid) blueberry plants were sprayed to drip with 0, 10.2, or 20.4 g·L-1 of H2CN2 [hereafter referred to as 0%, 1.0%, and 2.0% (v/v) H2CN2] on 20 Dec. 1996 and 7 Jan. 1997. During the following winter, mature `Misty' southern highbush and `Climax' rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) plants were sprayed to drip with 0, 7.6, or 15.3 g·L-1 of H2CN2 [hereafter referred to as 0%, 0.75%, and 1.5% (v/v) H2CN2] on 17 Dec. 1997 and 6 Jan. 1998. For all experiments, plants were dormant and leafless, with slightly swollen flower buds, at the time of spray applications. Generally, H2CN2 sprays increased the extent and earliness of vegetative budbreak and canopy establishment and advanced flowering slightly. The number of vegetative budbreaks usually increased linearly with increasing spray concentrations. In Florida, H2CN2 [0.75% to 1.0% (v/v)] sprays increased mean fruit fresh weight and yield, and shortened the fruit development period (FDP) compared to controls. However, H2CN2 sprays ranging in concentration from 1.5% to 2.0% (v/v) resulted in significant flower bud injury and reduced total fruit yield compared to controls. In south Georgia, 27 of 37 field trials conducted between 1991 and 1998 on several rabbiteye and southern highbush cultivars indicated that leaf development was significantly enhanced by H2CN2. H2CN2 shows potential for increasing early fruit maturity, fruit size, and yield of southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberry cultivars with poor leaf development characteristics in low-chill production regions. Chemical name used: hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2).

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Myong-Dong Cho, Hee-Seung Park, and Yong-Koo Kim

`Yumyeong' is one of the most popular peach varieties in Korea. This study was conducted to monitor the developments of cells and tissues, and the changes in sugar contents during the whole fruit growth stages. At bloom, there were two rows of vascular tissues, and the number and the position of internal vascular bundles were consistent during the fruit growth; however, the number of vascular tissues increased and the distribution was irregular in the flesh tissues. The tissues between the inner integument and the internal vascular bundles showed different development characteristics from other parenchyma cells, which consisted of small and dense cells containing tannins. Therefore, it was found that the nucleus of peach consisted of inner epidermis and cells in the internal vascular tissues. The outer epidermis consisted of single layer cells at bloom and was changed into one to two layers by horizontal cell division 14 days after full bloom. At 30 days after full bloom, the epidermis consisted of five to six layers by vertical cell division. The cell layers of the outer epidermis gradually decreased to one to two layers at maturity. The observations on the changes in the epidermis confirmed that some of the cells of the hypodermis of peach fruit originated from the cells of outer epidermis. Tylosis was observed from 35 days after full bloom, and the size and number of tylosis increased until full fruit maturity. The sucrose content sharply increased from 50 days to 120 days after full bloom, then decreased slightly. After stone hardening ended, other solids showed a gradual decrease from 80 days after full bloom.

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Douglas A. Hopper, P. Allen Hammer, and James R. Wilson

This paper details the development and verification of ROSESIM, a computer simulation model of the growth of `Royalty' roses (Rosa hybrida L.) based on experimentally observed growth responses from pinch until flowering under 15 combinations of constant photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), day temperature (DT), and night temperature (NT). Selected according to a rotatable central composite design, these treatment combinations represent commercial greenhouse conditions during the winter and spring in the midwestern United States; each selected condition was maintained in an environmental growth chamber having 12-hour photoperiods. ROSESIM incorporates regression models of four flower development characteristics (days from pinch to visible bud, first color, sepal reflex, and flowering) that are full quadratic polynomials in PPF, DT, and NT. ROSESIM also incorporates mathematical models of nine plant growth characteristics (stem length and the following fresh and dry weights: stem, leaf, flower, and total) based on data recorded every 10 days and at flowering. At each design point, a cubic regression in time (days from pinch) estimated the plant growth characteristics on intermediate days; then difference equations were developed to predict the resulting daily growth increments as third-degree polynomial functions of days from pinch, PPF, DT, and NT. ROSESIM was verified by plotting against time each simulated plant growth characteristic and the associated experimental observations for the eight factorial design points defining the region of interest. Moreover, one-way analysis of variance procedures were applied to the differences between ROSESIM predictions and the corresponding observed means for all 15 treatment combinations. At 20 days from pinch, significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for all nine plant growth characteristics. At 30 and 40 days from pinch, only flower fresh and dry weights yielded significant differences; at flowering, none of the 13 selected responses yielded significant differences. These graphical and statistical comparisons provide good evidence of ROSESIM's ability to predict the growth response of `Royalty' roses over a wide range of constant environmental conditions.

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A. Douglas Brede

( Hagley et al., 2002 ). The purpose of this article is to introduce the development, characteristics, and uses of ‘Alpha’ and ‘T-1’ creeping bentgrass. One objective in breeding these cultivars was to compete more effectively with annual bluegrass under

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James L. Brewbaker

-month-old cuttings. Vegetative propagation has been effective whether using short 5-cm sections in mist beds or by air-layering older stems ( Shi and Brewbaker, 2006 ). To achieve strong taproot development (characteristic of leucaenas), these propagules are wisely

Open access

Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan

of the middle layer and tapetum and delayed degeneration of the tapetum ( Kim et al., 2016 ). Different pollen development characteristics, such as the duration of each stage of pollen development, cytokinesis during meiosis in microspore mother cells

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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao, and Donald J. Huber

plants of solanaceous and cucurbitaceous crops, particularly with presence of targeted diseases or abiotic stresses ( Louws et al., 2010 ; Schwarz et al., 2010 ). Grafting may also alter plant growth and development characteristics such as numbers of