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J. Harrison Ferebee IV, Charles W. Cahoon, Michael L. Flessner, David B. Langston, Ramon Arancibia, Thomas E. Hines, Hunter B. Blake, and M. Carter Askew

( Kuhar et al., 2018 ). Vine desiccation before potato harvest is a common practice in the United States, giving producers the ability to regulate tuber growth and skin set, prevent spread of diseases, and facilitate more efficient harvest due to reduced

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Timothy W. Miller and Carl R. Libbey

July of Year 3. Blossoms are generally selectively harvested in these fields for use as cut flowers in early spring of Years 2 and 3. Paraquat herbicide is commonly used in mid-summer of Year 2 to desiccate weeds and hasten the drying of narcissus

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Yai Ulrich Adegbola and Héctor E. Pérez

Desiccation tolerance is a seed trait of significant horticultural importance. For example, the ability to tolerate considerable levels of postharvest desiccation is one of the key factors for maintaining seed viability and extending shelf life

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Natalia R. Dolce, Ricardo D. Medina, and María T. González-Arnao

high water contents (greater than 30%), a feature that is often associated with recalcitrant behavior ( Berjak et al., 1992 ). However, the tolerance of Ilex seeds to desiccation and low temperature storage has not been properly investigated. Moreover

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YanLing Zheng, GaoJuan Zhao, and HuanCheng Ma

), which are collected after the fruit split on the trees. We suspect that light-brown and dark-brown seeds may possess different maturity and thus might show different physiological responses to desiccation and subzero temperatures. In practice, most of

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John B. Masiunas

Experiments determined the effectiveness of the bipyridinium herbicides paraquat and diquat and of the diphenyl ether herbicide lactofen to desiccate onion (Allium cepa L.) shoots without affecting bulb quality and storage life. Paraquat, applied once, desiccated 80% of onion shoots within 3 days. Diquat desiccated ≈ 60% of onion shoots within 10 days of treatment. Lactofen caused slight necrosis but did not adequately desiccate onion shoots. Diquat and paraquat reduced sprouting of `Red Wethersfield' more than of `White Portugal'. Chemical names used: 6,7-dihydrodipyrido[l,2 2',1'-c] pyrazinediium ion (diquat); (±)2-ethoxy-l-methyl-2-oxoethy1 5-[2chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxyl] -2-nitrobenzoate (lactofen); 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion (paraquat).

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Smiljana Goreta, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

-week-old pepper seedlings were treated using a spray method with film-forming and chemical antitranspirants, and were then exposed to desiccation by withholding water. The film-forming (physical) antitranspirants used were AntiStress (AS; Enviroshield Products

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Yehoshua Saranga, David Rhodes, and Jules Janick

Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryos is a key factor for production of dry synthetic seeds. In celery (Apium graveolens L.) desiccation tolerance can be enhanced by optimization of culture duration, ABA application, or sucrose concentration in the embryo production medium. Morphologically mature embryos cultured for 10 days have shown higher desiccation tolerance then those cultured for 8 days, indicating that biochemical changes occur without any noticeable morphological changes. Application of ABA (1 μM) for the last two days of the embryo production cycle was critical for inducing desiccation tolerance; ABA application for the last four days had some additional beneficial effect. Desiccation tolerance was further enhanced by increasing the sucrose concentration of the embryo production media from 3% to 7% for the last two days. Increased desiccation tolerance achieved with optimal harvest timing and ABA application were associated with increased endogenous proline and aminobutyrate, and reduced glutamine.

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Leigh E. Towill*

Apple cryopreservation at USDA-ARS NCGRP uses a winter vegetative bud method that incorporates desiccation prior to cooling. Although this method is valuable, desiccation is time consuming, requiring cutting nodal sections to exact lengths, moisture content estimates, and 1-4 weeks of desiccation. Processing sections without desiccation is being examined to improve the efficiency of handling Malus accessions. Vi-ability was estimated using an oxidative browning assay or a sprouting test. Sections from mid-winter collected scions were cooled at different rates to -30°C or -35 °C and transferred to the vapor phase over liquid nitrogen. Sections were warmed at + 4 °C and held for 24 h before testing viability. Some lines were processed after several months of storage at -3.5 °C. Although viability after cryopreservation occurred with a cooling rate of 1 °C/h, slower cooling (5 °C/day) was beneficial for many accessions. In tests with a limited number of lines, cooling rates ≥10 °C/h to -30 °C caused injury to buds and cambium. Scions stored for up to 8 months could survive cryoexposure. Scions from three lines tested survived three cycles of cooling from + 4 °C to LN. Extent of acclimation affected results. With non-desiccated sections cryogenic survival of `Golden Delicious' differed over years, but this has also occurred with the procedure that uses a desiccation step. It is not expected that this method is generally applicable to more tender species of Malus or other fruit genera, but the method has been successful with many lines of M. × domestica, a fairly cold hardy taxa, and with some other cold hardy Malus species. Grafting tests are needed to confirm the usefulness of the method

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Kourosh Vahdati, Zeinab Maleki Asayesh, Sasan Aliniaeifard, and Charles Leslie

alter stomatal morphology during in vitro growth; 2) to determine the water loss characteristics of in vitro–generated leaves during ex vitro desiccation and; 3) to determine if increased CO 2 concentration during in vitro development can increase the