The effects of selected surfactants and surfactant blends, frequently used in spray application, on deposit formation and foliar absorption of GA3 by sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. cv. Montmorency) have been investigated. Globular deposits were observed on droplet drying from solutions without surfactants or when the surfactants Activator 90, Tween 20, or Silwet L-77 were present, while annular-shaped deposits were observed with Regulaid, Ortho X-77, and Triton AG-98. Absorption of GA3 without surfactant was 5- and 17-fold higher by the abaxial (8.5% and 20.2% of applied in 1988 and 1989) than adaxial surface (1.6% and 1.2% of applied in 1988 and 1989). Over 24 hours, Ortho X-77 and Activator 90 (45.7% vs. 33.7% in 1988, 42.5% vs. 41.7% in 1989) were most effective in enhancing GA3 penetration through the abaxial surface, followed by Triton AG-98 (38.6% in 1988), Tween 20 (28.6% in 1989), and Regulaid (23.6% in 1988, 16.8% in 1989). Silwet L-77 significantly reduced GA3 uptake (10.7% in 1989) compared with the nonsurfactant control (18.2% in 1989). GA3 uptake increased at a decreasing rate during a 96-hour absorption period when GA3 was applied alone or with Ortho X-77. However, uptake increased linearly with time in the presence of Regulaid, yielding significantly higher GA3 penetration 96 hours after application (44.8%) compared with GA, alone (11.3%) or GA3 with Ortho X-77 (27.7%). GA3 penetration was independent of Tween 20 concentration in the range from 0.0313% to 0.25% but increased with increasing Ortho X-77 concentration (0.0313$%0 to 0.25%) over a 24-hour absorption period. Chemical names used: alkylpolyoxyethylene ether, free fatty acids, isopropanol (Activator 90); alkylarylpolyoxyethyleneglycols, free fatty acids and isopropanol (Ortho X-77); polyoxyethylenepolypropoxypropanol, alkyl 2-ethoxy-ethanol (Regulaid); polyalkyleneoxide modified polydimethylsiloxane copolymers (Silwet L-77); alkylarylpolyethylene glycol (Triton AG-98); polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20); gibberellic acid (GA3).
Moritz Knoche and Martin J. Bukovac
Martin J. Bukovac
The importance of spray application and the role of spray additives are reviewed in reference to increasing the effectiveness of plant growth regulators (PGR). The spray application process is composed of a number of interrelated components, from formulation of the active ingredient into a sprayable, bioactive solution (emulsion/suspension), to atomization, delivery, retention, and penetration into the plant tissue. Each of these events is critical to performance of the PGR. Also, each can be affected by spray additives, particularly adjuvants, which may be incorporated in the formulation of the active ingredient or added to the spray mixture. The role of the individual components and effects of spray adjuvants, particularly surfactants and fertilizer adjuvants, on the component processes are discussed.
Antonio Heredia and Martin J. Bukovac
Micelles of two nonionic surfactants (Triton X-114 and Neodol 91) were shown by gel filtration chromatography to solubilize nondissociated NAA molecules in aqueous solutions. Micelle solubilization of nonpolar active ingredients in aqueous spray systems alters the distribution of the chemical in the spray solution and may influence chemical deposit formation and penetration characteristics. Chemical names used: 2-(1-naphthyl)acetic acid (NAA), octylphenoxy polyethoxylate-7.5 POE (Triton X-114), linear alcohol (C9-11) polyethoxylate-6 POE (Neodol 91).
M.J. Bukovac and D.L. Reichard
Most growth regulators and crop protection chemicals are delivered to the plant as aqueous sprays. Spray droplet:plant surface interaction is central to establishing spray and, hence, dose retention by the plant. Further, the nature of chemical deposition from spray droplets plays an important role in determining the efficiency of the active ingredient (a.i.). Using scanning electron microscopy and dispersive x-ray analysis, we investigated chemical deposit formation of selected growth regulators (e.g. ethephon, 2,4, 5-TP, TIBA) on leaf surfaces differing in wettability and surface fine-structure. The a.i. frequently deposited in the form of an annulus on droplet drying, and the degree of spreading was related to surface tension of the spray solution, and wettability, fine-structure and morphology of the leaf surface. Marked differences were observed in spreading following impaction on veins vs. interveinal areas of leaves of Prunus and Pyrus sp. The epidermis over veins was more readily wetted leading to rapid lateral diffusion along veins. Surfactants (e.g. Tween 20, Regulaid) altered the deposition pattern, expanding the annulus and increasing spreading on the leaf surface.