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James R. Ballington, Barclay Poling and Kerry Olive

late fall and winter) or extended-season cropping options (e.g., outdoor summer and early fall day-neutral strawberries). By way of background, the majority of strawberry producers in the southeastern United States and mid-Atlantic states currently

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Thomas M. Sjulin

Day-neutral cultivars of the cultivated strawberry are very important in California's commercial strawberry industry. Since the introduction of the first successful day-neutral cultivar Selva in 1983, the cultivated area of day-neutral cultivars

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Daniel Rowley, Brent L. Black, Dan Drost and Dillon Feuz

), but length of fruiting season is limited by photoperiod and temperature ( Durner et al., 1984 ). Alternatively, day-neutral cultivars are insensitive to photoperiod and continue to flower as long as temperatures are between 4 and 29 °C ( Hancock and

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Kaitlyn M. Orde and Rebecca Grube Sideman

; Pritts and Handley, 1998 ), but regional dependence on these cultivars has prevented growers from participating in the commercial strawberry market outside their brief 4- to 6-week fruiting period each year ( Pritts and Handley, 1998 ). Day-neutral (DN

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Kelly Gude, Cary L. Rivard, Sara E. Gragg, Kimberly Oxley, Petros Xanthopoulos and Eleni D. Pliakoni

revenue. Furthermore, yields of day-neutral cultivars are typically higher than those of June-bearing cultivars because of the extended harvest season ( Lantz et al., 2010 ; Rowley et al., 2011 ). In the high-elevation region of Utah with summer

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Lisa W. DeVetter, Huan Zhang, Shuresh Ghimire, Sean Watkinson and Carol A. Miles

, which predominately uses remontant/perpetual-flowering (i.e., day neutral) cultivars grown in annual plasticulture systems ( California Strawberry Commission, 2017 ). Strawberry production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), specifically Oregon and

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Bernard Gagnon, Yves Desjardin and Roger Bédard

Abbreviations: DN, day-neutral; LT 50 , lethal temperature for SO% of flower buds; TNSC, total nonstructural carbohydrates. 1 Graduate student. 2 Research assistant. 3 Profcssor. We are grateful to the Agriculture Canada Research Station in Ste

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Tekan S. Rana and Sanjun Gu

June-bearing strawberries have been a focus in HT, day-neutral strawberries also have their place. For day-neutral strawberries, photoperiod does not affect their flower initiation when temperature is below 10 °C ( Sønsteby and Heide, 2007 ). However

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Neil O. Anderson and Peter D. Ascher

Commercial garden and greenhouse chrysanthemums [Dendranthema ×grandiflora (Ramat.) Kitam. (syn. Chrysanthemum xmorifolium Ramat.)] are facultative short-day plants for flower bud initiation, obligate short-day plants for flower bud development, and are categorized into short-day response groups. Flower initiation can be delayed by high night temperatures. Recent research has identified true day-neutral genotypes. The purpose of this investigation was to test environments for selecting genotypes that are both day-neutral and heat-delay insensitive. One greenhouse and 18 garden genotypes were selected. A series of environments were used to select for day-neutral genotypes and then differentiate between these genotypes for heat delay insensitivity: short days, long days/red light, long days/far red light and high temperatures, and natural day lengths under field conditions. Day-neutral selections from these environments were then grown in a fifth environment of long days/continuous far red and red light with high temperature. Data were collected on the number of days to first and third flower, long day leaf number, stem length, number of strap-shaped leaves subtending the terminal flower, internode lengths, number of nodes with axillary branching, and flower bud development of the first to the sixth flowers. Genotypes required 3 to 8 weeks for complete flower bud initiation/development. Flowering responses in the first four environments were highly significant for both the first and third flowers. Genotypes ranged from obligate short-day to day-neutral for the first six flowers. Three day-neutral genotypes were selected that differed significantly for all traits in the fifth environment; flower bud development with the first six flowers occurred with only one genotype, 83-267-3. Broad sense heritability estimates ranged from h2 = 0.75 for number of nodes with axillary branching, h2 = 0.79 for long day leaf number and number of strap-shaped leaves, to h2 = 0.91 for stem length. An ideotype for day-neutral and heat-delay-insensitive garden chrysanthemums was developed for use in breeding programs.

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M. Lamarre and M.J. Lareau

During 1993 and 1994, the day-neutral strawberry cultivar Tribute was subjected to two rates of N (50 and 100 kgha–1), four rates of K (0, 60,120, and 180 kgha–1), and three rates of Mg fertilization (0, 25, and 50 kgha–1) from June to September through trickle irrigation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the best N, K, and Mg fertilization rates in the production of day-neutral `Tribute' strawberry. The N treatments had no significant influence on yield and fruit size for the two years. We observed the same situation for K as for N. For Mg treatments, fruit size was increased by adding 25 kgha–1 during the first picking in 1993, and they had no effect in the second year. For both years, the Mg had no effect on the yield.