The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an outdoor environmental program, Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom, on elementary grade students' creative and critical thinking, and attitudes toward math and science. Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom is an on-campus nature program in Santa Fe, N.M. Students participated in half-day programs focusing on topics such as water, insects, soil, and weather. Twenty-one teachers from five schools volunteered 175 second through sixth graders to participate in the program and research study. Surveys were administered to students, teachers, and volunteers after completion of the program. Interview data was analyzed using QSR NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theory-building) computer-assisted qualitative data analysis system to examine respondents' perceptions of the program using Bloom's taxonomy as a theoretical framework. Results indicated that students not only learned math and science at the lower levels of Bloom's taxonomy, but were also thinking at the higher levels of synthesis and evaluation within the framework.
T.M. Waliczek, P. Logan and J.M. Zajicek
Alexander Q. Susko and Zachary T. Brym
-source general programming software, such as R, improves both repeatability and flexibility of analyses through in-depth documentation and customization of programs for data analysis. Improving proficiency in techniques for computer programming and data
Karen E. Burr and Rudy M. King
Cold hardiness testing is an important tool used at US Forest Service nurseries for evaluating the physiological quality of conifer stock. Three tests were compared. A whole-plant freeze test without root system insulation permitted evaluation of cold injury without complication by drought symptoms if plants were misted. A cutting freeze test underestimated expected field foliar injury due to high humidity used to maintain the cuttings. An electrolyte leakage test failed to detect economically important bud mortality when buds were less hardy than other tissues.
Data from all three testing methods were analyzed with an original software package consisting of standardized input files and a step-by-step series of fortran programs and command files for use with commercially available non-linear modelling programs. Injury (y) versus temperature (x) data were modelled with the versatile, 4-parameter Weibull sigmoid model. Injury estimates at specific temperatures (Ix) or temperature estimates causing specific injury levels (LTy) were calculated with confidence and calibration intervals, respectively. The statistical significance of differences between Ix or LTy estimates was then determined.
Shahrokh Khanizadeh and Mamdouh A. Fanous
Larry Joh and David V. Barkley
The North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service's New Hanover County Center provides the Plant Disease and Insect Clinic staffed by the Horticulture Extension Agent and Master Gardener volunteers. Residents bring in samples of weeds, diseases, and insects for identification and control recommendations. After the problem is diagnosed, a record of the information is used to construct a database that includes the date, phone number, crop, diagnosis, and control for each sample submitted. Between January 1993 and December 1999, Master Gardener volunteers entered more than 4,000 entries into a searchable/sortable electronic database to identify patterns of plant disorders. The database should be a useful tool for predicting local disease and insect cycles and aiding Master Gardeners in answering questions at the clinic and over the telephone. In addition, examination of historical records and entry of data into the database are excellent learning opportunities for new Master Gardeners.
L.E. Parent and M. Dafir
Abbreviations: CDA, compositional data analysis; CND, compositional nutrient diagnosis; CVA, critical value approach; DRIS, diagnosis and recommendation integrated system. 1 Professor. 2 Graduate student. The research was supported by the Natural
Lamia Krichen, Joao M.S. Martins, Patrick Lambert, Abderrazzak Daaloul, Neila Trifi-Farah, Mohamed Marrakchi and Jean-Marc Audergon
read separately by two persons and ambiguous markers were not recorded. Data analysis. AFLP polymorphic bands were scored as present or absent and were treated as symmetric (both presence and absence of bands were considered in the data analysis
Robert L. Wample, Guy Reisenauer, Andy Bary and Fred Schuetze
A computerized system capable of controlling the freezing rate and collecting, storing, and analyzing data from multiple samples to determine their freezing point using low-temperature exotherm analysis is described. Details include electrical diagrams of modifications to the multiplexer/amplifier interface to provide additional signal amplification and permit control of the freezer's compressor. Computer software is described that permits variable temperature decline rates. Data analysis consists of a program in “C” that sequentially compares each data point in a low-temperature exotherm profile. Low-temperature exotherms are identified by a user-specified minimum differential between sequential data points. Examples of exotherm output and data analysis are given.
Ralph Scorza, Daniele Bassi and Alessandro Liverani
The authors extend appreciation to M. Demuth and L. Gilreath for excellent technical assistance in tree production and evaluation of growth habit and M. Pooler for assistance in data analysis.
Kate M. Evans, Lisa J. Brutcher and Bonnie S. Konishi
Inventory control of trees and fruit samples in the Washington State University apple breeding program has been simplified by the use of bar codes. Tree labels incorporate individual bar-coded identities that can be scanned in the field when taking measurements or collecting samples. Bar codes on fruit sample labels also simplify data recording as well as improve the efficiency of the program by greatly reducing the risk of errors. The interface of bar-code identities with data organization and statistical software makes data analysis more straightforward.