Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 3,498 items for :

  • All content x
Clear All
Free access

Jack D. Fry and Raymond A. Cloyd

, 1998 ). Adults feed on and deposit eggs in crowns, leaf sheaths, and stems. Eggs hatch into young larvae that cause the most damage when tunneling into stems. Older larvae feed on roots and then pupate in the soil. Bluegrass billbug overwinters as an

Full access

Michael W. Smith and Charles T. Rohla

Severe weather events frequently have devastating impacts on perennial tree crops. Pecan orchards and groves are particularly susceptible to damage from tornadoes ( Sparks and Payne, 1985 ), hurricanes ( Hagler et al., 1980 ; Kilby and Converse

Free access

Chengyan Yue, Helen H. Jensen, Daren S. Mueller, Gail R. Nonnecke, Douglas Bonnet, and Mark L. Gleason

and become desiccated during storage ( Williamson and Sutton, 2000 ). SBFS is controlled by fungicides during the growing season; if disease is not too severe, the damage may be removed from harvested apples by washing and brushing ( Batzer et al

Full access

David Obenland, Dennis Margosan, Sue Collin, James Sievert, Kent Fjeld, Mary Lu Arpaia, James Thompson, and David Slaughter

The marketability of navel oranges can be severely reduced by exposure to freezing conditions in the field. Ice crystals forming within the fruit damage the membranes of the juice sac cells and lead to enhanced water loss through the peel when

Free access

Mark E. Herrington, Craig Hardner, Malcolm Wegener, Louella L. Woolcock, and Mark J. Dieters

fall (May) through early spring (September), rainfall is typically low (mean monthly rainfall ≈61 mm), but rainfall events are highly variable. Fruit are exposed to prevailing weather conditions and may suffer rain damage ( Herrington and Chandler, 2006

Free access

Kevin R. Kosola, Beth Ann A. Workmaster, James S. Busse, and Jeffrey H. Gilman

). Hydropneumatic root elutriation was developed to provide recovery of up to 95% of roots of all size classes from soil cores with minimal damage and good repeatability ( Smucker et al., 1982 ). In this method, air is bubbled up through a flowing water column to

Free access

James O. Denney and George C. Martin

Record low temperatures were experienced in California during the last 10 days of December, 1990. Olive trees in both the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys suffered damage from the freeze. The lowest minimum recorded in these areas was -11.6C at Willows (Glenn Co.). Types of damage included death of succulent growing tips, defoliation, bark split, and bark and xylem discoloration. Tree death to the ground was uncommon. Defoliation continued throughout the growing season, and many leaves that persisted became chlorotic. Major outbreaks of olive knot disease caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi were seen in damaged trees, especially in `Manzanillo.' Anatomical studies showed evidence of ice nucleation events in the phloem, xylem, and leaves, but the cambium was usually left intact. Refoliation and healing of bark splits progressed rapidly once growth resumed in the spring, except in cases of olive knot infestation. Cultural practices that predisposed trees to freeze damage were those leading to late-season vegetative growth, namely fall pruning and late or excessive irrigation or fertilization. `Manzanillo' is the least cold-hardy of California cultivars and the most susceptible to olive knot. `Barouni' is the most hardy.

Full access

Sergio Castro-Garcia, Uriel A. Rosa, Christopher J. Gliever, David Smith, Jacqueline K. Burns, William H. Krueger, Louise Ferguson, and Kitren Glozer

). Fresh green olives are extremely susceptible to mechanical damage. Industrial processing for black table olives can mitigate some damage, but severe bruising, cuts, and abrasions are unacceptable to the consumer. Some fruit crops, such as citrus ( Citrus

Free access

Betsey Miller, Denny J. Bruck, and Vaughn Walton

for BVW ( Smith, 1932 ). Adults feed on foliage, causing notching along the margins of leaves; however, this damage is rarely of economic importance. Larvae feed on belowground plant tissues and this causes major root damage ( Smith, 1927 ). Larvae

Full access

Fan-Hsuan Yang, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik

Crop loss from heat damage is becoming a prevalent problem for many blueberry growers in the northwestern United States. The region, which includes Oregon and Washington, is the leading producer of blueberries in the country [ U.S. Department of