sterility, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), or cytoplasmic–genic male sterility in higher plants according to inheritance or origin ( Chen et al., 2017 ). Furthermore, CMS in crop species can be subdivided based on the phenotypic characteristics of the
Huan Xiong, Ping Chen, Zhoujun Zhu, Ya Chen, Feng Zou, and Deyi Yuan
Katrina J.M. Hodgson-Kratky and David J. Wolyn
-compatibility and selfing rates Heredity 86 113 123 Chen, L. Liu, Y. 2014 Male sterility and fertility restoration in crops Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 65 579 606 Fan, Z. Stefansson, B.R. 1986 Influence of temperature on sterility of two cytoplasmic male sterility
Bingqiang Wei, Lanlan Wang, Paul W. Bosland, Gaoyuan Zhang, and Ru Zhang
, hybrid vigor can improve the yield, resistance, and quality of pepper. Cytoplasmic male sterility facilitates the production of hybrid seed. A major concern of hybrid seed production is prevention of self-pollination that can produce seeds that are not
J. Alcala, J.F. Lopes, J.J. Giovannoni, and L.M. Pike
Identification and production of onion male-sterile and maintainer lines by conventional breeding takes between 4 to 8 years, due in part to the biennial nature of onion. In addition, male sterile plants and maintainer genotypes occur at a very low frequency in onion populations (Pike, 1986). A significantly shorter and more efficient alternative involves the screening of breeding lines for cytoplasmic male sterility using PCR-based technology. Thirty short-day onion breeding lines from the Texas A&M onion program were screened for type of cytoplasm (normal or sterile). Specific amplification of a fragment of chloroplast genome was achieved using the polymerase chain reaction according to Havey (1991). Forty-eight individual onion plants were screened per line. Out of thirty lines evaluated, 13 showed 100% sterile cytoplasm, 6 showed 100% normal cytoplasm, and 11 showed both types of cytoplasm. Lines showing normal cytoplasm or both cytoplasmic types were kept and reanalyzed. Only plants presenting normal cytoplasm were grown to maturity to help in the identification of maintainer lines as part of the Texas A&M onion breeding program.
Michael J. Havey and Daniela Lopes Leite
Hybrid leek is more uniform and higher yielding than open-pollinated cultivars and is presently produced by asexual propagation of a genic male-sterile plant. A cheaper method to produce hybrid leek seed would be a system of cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in the organellar genomes have correlated with CMS in many crops. We undertook gel-blot analyses of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNAs to assess cytoplasmic diversity among 62 accessions of the major cultivated forms of Allium ampeloprasum L. (leek, kurrat, and great-headed garlic). No polymorphisms were detected in the chloroplast genome of leek and kurrat. Three accessions of leek and one of kurrat possessed one or two of seven polymorphic mitochondrial probe-enzyme combinations. Great-headed garlic differed from leek and kurrat for six polymorphisms in the chloroplast genome and for many mitochondrial probe-enzyme combinations. Our analyses revealed few organellar polymorphisms among accessions of leek and kurrat, reducing the probability that selection of polymorphic cytoplasms will reveal CMS in leek.
Michael J. Havey and Borut Bohanec
maintenance of cytoplasmic male sterility. Random plants from ‘Sapporo-Ki’ were self-pollinated and testcrossed to male-sterile plants of MSU611–1A × MSU611B or MSU5718A × MSU8155B. The S 1 families were evaluated for their cytoplasm using the molecular
Sergio Melgar and Michael J. Havey
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used to produce hybrid onion seed ( Havey, 2004 ). The most commonly used source of onion CMS is conditioned by the combination of male-sterile cytoplasm with the homozygous recessive genotype ( msms ) at
Hsiang-I Lee and Michael J. Havey
Identification of candidate genes associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in onion ( Allium cepa L.) using a combination of bulked segregant analysis and RNA seq Theor. Appl. Genet. 128 2289 2299 King, J.J. Bradeen, J.M. Bark, O
Derek W. Barchenger, Joseph I. Said, Yang Zhang, Mingzhou Song, Franchesca A. Ortega, Yeasong Ha, Byoung-Cheorl Kang, and Paul W. Bosland
Positional cloning of the rice rf-1 gene, a restorer of bt-type cytoplasmic male sterility that encodes a mitochondria-targeted PPR protein Theor. Appl. Genet. 108 1449 1457 Allen, E. Xie, Z. Gustafson, A.M. Sung, G.H. Spatafora, J.W. Carrington, J.C. 2004
D.J. Wolyn and A. Chahal
Male-sterile carrot plants with petaloid-stamens were discovered in wild populations in the vicinity of Guelph, Ontario, Canada and inheritance of phenotype was assessed. Genetic analyses were also conducted to identify nuclear restorer genes of petaloid cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from wild carrot, and determine if Guelph, Cornell and Wisconsin cytoplasmic male-sterile accessions interacted similarly with alleles of restorer genes from different sources. Petaloid male-sterility was inherited cytoplasmically for the new Guelph accessions, and nuclear genotypes which normally produce `green' or `white' petaloid-stamens in combination with the Cornell cytoplasm also produced corresponding phenotypes when backcrossed to Guelph cytoplasmic accessions. Two duplicate restorer genes were identified from wild carrot. Dominant alleles of single restorer genes from three sources, one from wild carrot and two from cultivated germplasm, restored stamen production to Guelph, Cornell and Wisconsin petaloid cytoplasmic accessions, suggesting that the cytoplasms were genetically identical.