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Hailin Shen, Zhendong Liu, Ke Yan, Liren Zou, Jinghui Wen, Yinshan Guo, Kun Li and Xiuwu Guo

gender differentiation mechanism in Vitis species. In the present study, we 1) focused on the abortion of pistil and its recovery from the perspective of cytology and 2) aimed to provide a more theoretical basis for gender determination mechanism in

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Mohammad Majdi, Ghasem Karimzadeh, Mohammad A. Malboobi, Reza Omidbaigi and Ghader Mirzaghaderi

biomass and to improve medicinal and ornamental characteristics. In the present study, the induction of polyploid on feverfew was examined and morphological, physiological, cytological, and phytochemical characteristics of diploid and induced

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Yihui Cui, Peng Zhao, Hongqiang An, Nan Lv, Zifeng Zhang, Wei Pei and Wanjun Wang

were examined by ESEM (Quanta 200; FEI, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) in their natural form without additional sample preparation. Results Cytological characteristics of embryonic callus cells. Histologically, embryonic calli were composed of two

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Ryan N. Contreras and Kimberly Shearer

can provide greater insight into a genus and thus aid in developing breeding strategies. The base chromosome number of Acer is x = 13. Cytological reports for maples include a range of ploidy levels ( Darlington and Wylie, 1956 ). The greatest

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Ryan N. Contreras and John M. Ruter

alter breeding strategy ( Fehr, 1991 ). Unfortunately, relative to the number of species in the genus, the cytological information is sparse for Callicarpa . The first beautyberry chromosome count reported was for C. japonica (2 n = 32) by Sugiura

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Asma Ziauddin, Mingsheng Peng and David J. Wolyn

Clear visualization of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) microspore nuclei with common stains such as acetocarmine or DAPI is difficult, hindering cytological analyses. The addition of saturated aqueous ferric chloride solution to Carnoy's I fixative (30 μL·mL-1) resulted in clear visualization of nuclei. A distinct nucleus was observed in uninucleate cells and the vegetative and generative nuclei were clearly visible in binucleate microspores. This method can be used reliably for determination of asparagus microspore developmental stage. Chemical name used: 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-2HCL (DAPI).

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Chunsheng Lu and Mark Bridgen

Self-pollinations of a diploid (2n = 2x = 16) interspecific hybrid from the cross of Alstroemeria aurea × A. caryophyllaea resulted in no seed set. Pollen viability studies with the hybrid demonstrated that only 5% of the pollen grains were viable. Cytological observations with the hybrid pollen mother cell (PMC) revealed abnormal chromosome behaviors, such as no pairing in Prophase I and Metaphase I, and bridges in the Anaphase I and II. Although the development of microspores appeared normal in shape until the stage of tetrad release, some chromosomes did not remain in the nucleus after completing meiosis, formed isolated groups of 1 to 4, and remained in the cytoplasm. This genetic imbalance of the microspores could be one of the causes for the abortion of the pollen grains in the late stage of development. Additional meiotic cytological studies with colchicine-induced tetraploids (2n = 4x = 32) derived from the hybrid plants showed that chromosome pairings were normal in most cases. However, self-pollination with the tetraploid plants failed to set seeds. These studies with the tetraploids further demonstrate that the sterility of the hybrid is due not only to chromosomal differences, but also to complex genic interactions.

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Tehryung Kim and Hazel Y. Wetzstein

Zinc deficiency is a widespread nutritional disorder in plants and occurs in both temperate and tropical climates. In spite of its physiological importance, cytological and ultrastructural changes associated with zinc deficiency are lacking, in part because zinc deficiency is difficult to induce. A method was developed to induce zinc deficiency in pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch) using hydroponic culture. Zinc deficiency was evaluated in leaves using light and electron microscopy. Zinc deficiency symptoms varied with severity ranging from interveinal mottling, overall chlorosis, necrosis, and marginal curving. Zinc deficient leaves were thinner, and palisade cells were shorter, wider, and had more intercellular spaces than zinc sufficient leaves. Cells in zinc deficient leaves had limited cytoplasmic content and accumulated phenolic compounds in vacuoles. Extensive starch accumulation was observed in chloroplasts. This work represents the first detailed microscopic evaluations of zinc deficiency in leaves, and provides insight on how zinc deficiency affects leaf structure and function.

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Jason D. Lattier, Hsuan Chen and Ryan N. Contreras

304.46 pg ( Paris japonica Franch.) ( Bennett and Leitch, 2011 ; Chen et al., 2014 ; Fleischmann et al., 2014 ; Pellicer et al., 2010 ). Traditional cytology has many uses in modern studies on woody plants. Combined with flow cytometry, cytology

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Shujuan Yang, Li Peng, Han Bao and Huiqiao Tian

studied ( Chua, 2016 ; Kang et al., 2013 ; Sakunphueak et al., 2013 ; Su et al., 2012 ), reports of detailed studies on anther development, cytological features, and distribution of nutritional reserves in the anthers of I. balsamina are scarce. The