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Calvin Chong and Bob Hamersma

Terminal stem cuttings of four evergreens [arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.), `Calgary Carpet' juniper (Juniperus sabina L.), `Hetzii' juniper (Juniperus virginiana L.), and Tamarix juniper (Juniperus sabina L.)] and four deciduous {Amur maple (Acer ginnala Maxim.), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and viburnum (Viburnum farreri Stearn)} woody landscape shrubs were treated with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.8% IBA mixed in talc or with 0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5% IBA dissolved in 95% ethanol, radiator antifreeze (95% ethylene glycol), or windshield washer fluid (47.5% methanol). None of the carriers were phytotoxic to the cuttings. Cuttings treated with IBA in radiator antifreeze or windshield washer fluid produced rooting in most taxa similar to those treated with IBA in ethanol. Cuttings of the evergreen taxa produced more roots with liquid than with talc IBA at similar concentration ranges. There were some differences in rooting performance (expressed in terms of percent rooting, mean root count per rooted cutting, and length of the longest root per cutting) of taxa to solvents and IBA concentrations. However, such differences, if any, were generally small or commercially insignificant, except for ninebark, which rooted optimally with no IBA and exhibited a large reduction in percent rooting with increasing IBA concentrations in windshield washer fluid. Chemical name used: indolebutyric acid (IBA).

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Christopher J. Currey, Roberto G. Lopez, Vijay K. Rapaka, James E. Faust, and Erik S. Runkle

Agriculture, 2012 ). The majority of vegetatively propagated geranium producers purchase unrooted cuttings originating from stock plant facilities primarily in Mexico, Central America, and Africa, necessitating shipping of cuttings by air freight ( Serek et al

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Fumiomi Takeda, Thomas Tworkoski, Chad E. Finn, and Charles C. Boyd

Blackberry traditionally has been propagated using vegetative methods including tip layering, cane cuttings (soft and hard), root cuttings, and tissue culture (TC) ( Caldwell, 1984 ). Large commercial blackberry nurseries use TC techniques that are

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Fan Cao, Xinwang Wang, Zhuangzhuang Liu, Yongrong Li, and Fangren Peng

clonal propagation research in China because of the rapidly increasing demands of the international pecan market ( Zhang et al., 2015c ). However, the hardwood cutting propagation technique is difficult. A rooting method for pecan cuttings by treating

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Melody Reed Richards and Larry A. Rupp

resulted in 15% rooting ( Bowen-O’Connor et al., 2007 ) of juvenile material, but has not been shown effective in propagating mature specimens. Asexual propagation by cuttings has been even less successful with Tankersley achieving only 0.8% rooting (1981

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Abigail R. Debner, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti, and Fumiomi Takeda

system using dormant hardwood cuttings when they have achieved their chilling requirement for breaking physiological dormancy. If hardwood cuttings could be successfully rooted, then greenhouse growers could produce miniature (≈30 cm long stems

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Ute Albrecht, Mireia Bordas, Beth Lamb, Bo Meyering, and Kim D. Bowman

alternative methods such as the use of cuttings or TC–generated plants. Like plants derived from apomictic seeds, both propagation methods will yield genetically uniform plants that can be used as liners for commercial citrus tree production. There has been

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Josiah Raymer, Mack Thetford, and Debbie L. Miller

cuttings. Plants along the Gulf of Mexico coastal regions are dormant during the winter with the first leaves appearing in mid- to late March depending on the degree of exposure. Leaf arrangement in early spring is opposite and leaves are nearly half as

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Jacob A. Griffith Gardner, Jessica D. Lubell, and Mark H. Brand

, 1976 ), and seeds produce variable-quality plants. Deciduous shrubs are typically propagated from softwood cuttings taken at the end of June when shoots begin to harden off ( Hartmann et al., 2002 ). However, this method has not been successful for C

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Julia A. Cartabiano and Jessica D. Lubell

applications. Deciduous shrubs, like the four native species identified, are generally propagated using softwood stem cuttings taken sometime during spring to summer. However, research has shown that for some species, softwood cutting success is improved when