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Ashley R. Basinger, Cynthia B. McKenney, and Dick Auld

needed for students to be successful. Competencies have been used in curriculum evaluation and reform to measure learning and to keep academic entities accountable for the growth of that learning. Many undergraduate majors have defined competencies

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Damian M. Parr and Mark Van Horn

We thank Cary J. Trexler, Navina Khanna, Kristin Reynolds, and other members of the UC Davis Sustainability Curriculum Workgroup for their contributions.

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Ann Marie VanDerZanden

-order thinking skills, those that require synthesis, application, and evaluation, is to integrate Bloom's Taxonomy ( Bloom et al., 1956 ) into the curriculum ( McCormick and Whittington, 2000 ; VanDerZanden, 2005 ). Bloom's taxonomy is a classification method

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Ann Marie VanDerZanden, Cynthia Haynes, Gail R. Nonnecke, and Robert Martin

universities ( McPherson, 2001 ). To help fulfill this part of their mission, many institutions of higher education include some form of an international perspectives requirement as part of their undergraduate curriculum ( Crunkilton et al., 2003 ). One of Iowa

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David H. Trinklein and Judith A. Wells


A horticulture curriculum requires regular evaluation because of changing student needs. Traditionally, faculty have reviewed the curriculum and have made changes depending on their own observations. In recent years, an attempt has been made to improve this process by consulting others. For example, task forces in horticulture have been formed at the national level to assess groups representing education, government, business, and industry to determine student needs and establish curricular priorities (2).

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Kimberly R. Hilgers, Cynthia Haynes, and Joanne Olson

preschoolers ( Midden and Chambers, 2000 ). Skelly and Zajicek (1998) reported an increase in positive environmental attitudes of second- and fourth-grade students participating in a garden-based curriculum. Because food is almost wholly derived, ultimately

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John F. Kelly

At Michigan State Univ., the Dept. of Horticulture curriculum has been restructured simultaneously both toward and away from specialization. The traditional commodity orientation has been eliminated in the main track Horticulture option. At the same time, a new highly structured Landscape Design–Construction and Management option has been created. Both of these changes were made in response to industry needs. Additional optional Specializations in Environmental Studies, Agribusiness, and Biotechnology also are available. These require students to take 18–20 credits from specified course lists. These credits may be part of the required courses for the Horticulture major, or may be in addition to that requirement.

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Laurie W. DeMarco, Diane Relf, and Alan McDaniel

Gardening is increasing in use as the focus of interdisciplinary teaching units in the elementary school curriculum and as a stratagem for student therapeutic, recreational, and social experiences. Elementary school teachers, identified as experienced in using gardening as a teaching tool, were surveyed and interviewed to determine successful strategies for integration of gardening into elementary school curricula. The most important factors determined by these teachers for the successful use of gardening in the curriculum were 1) student and faculty ownership or commitment to integrating gardening in their curriculum, 2) availability of physical resources, and 3) faculty knowledge and skill in the application of gardening to enhance an interdisciplinary curriculum. Educators who incorporate school gardening into their curriculum report that school gardening is a somewhat successful (35.2%) or very successful (60.6%) teaching tool that enhances the learning of their students. Most (92%) teachers surveyed requested additional school gardening education for themselves.

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Kathryn Karsh, Edward Bush, Janice Hinson, and Pamela Blanchard

gardens within the science curriculum. Test results indicated that students in experimental groups in third through fifth grades had higher scores than those students who did not participate in the study. Smith (2003) conducted a study using several

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A.W. Fleener, C.W. Robinson, J.D. Williams, and M. Kraska

experimental and six control. A total of 73 students participated in the experimental group and 54 in the control group. Curriculum. The curriculum used in this study was the Literature in the Garden curriculum. Literature in the Garden is a part of the Golden