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Piyada A. Tantasawat, Apinya Khairum, Kitiya Arsakit, Oythip Poolsawat, Paniti Pornbungkerd and Chitpan Kativat

not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of various culture media varying in basal salts, PGRs, and organic additives on the growth and proliferation of ‘Earsakul’ dendrobium PLBs during 8 months of two-step culture in

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Sadanand A. Dhekney, Zhijian T. Li, Michael E. Compton and Dennis J. Gray

). Identification of one to a few useful culture media would facilitate initiation of embryogenic cultures for Vitis species and varieties. We studied factors including explant type and developmental stage, medium composition, and growth regulator concentrations

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R.P. Pacumbaba and R.O. Pacumbaba Jr.

Culture media YMMBSA (yeast extract, malt extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), YVMBSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), and YVMSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, sucrose, agar) and broths YVMBS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar), YVMS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, sucrose), and MVBS (multigrain oatmeal V-8 vegetable juice brown sugar) were formulated and demonstrated to be excellent media and broths for growing shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] in the laboratory. When a portion of the unopened basidiocarp or mushroom fruit (cap or stipe) was isolated on PSA (potato sucrose agar) medium and transferred to the formulated culture media, the mycelia significantly ramified to flocculent (wooly or fluffy) growth texture within 20 days. For the first time, shiitake mushroom basidiocarps have been induced on the formulated plated media within 20 to 35 days. In tissue culture vessels, mycelia grew well on substrates composed of maple, oak, maple + oak, maple + vermiculite, and oak + vermiculite which had been amended with the broths YVMBS, YVMS or MVBS, attaining spawn texture in 25 to 30 days. Shiitake basidiocarps appeared on the tissue vessels, Magenta GA-7, in 2.6 to 4.1 months. Shiitake mushroom strains, LE1, LE2, LE6, LE7, and LE8, attained flocculent mycelia on the formulated culture media YMMBSA, YVMBSA, and YVMSA in 20 days. Growing the same shiitake strains in the bigger tissue culture vessels, P4928, containing hardwood sawdust amended with broth YVMBS or YVMS or MVBS resulted in significantly larger volume of mycelia growth and spawn texture was attained in 35 to 45 days. Shiitake basidiocarp initials or pins were induced on the spawn blocks in 3 to 5 days after the blocks were squeezed off from the sides of the tissue culture vessels. These results are the first that the formulated culture media considerably enhanced the growing of shiitake mushroom mycelia, production of spawn, and basidiocarps in less time (2.6 to 4.1 months after inoculation) in the laboratory. Basidiocarp productions of shiitake mushroom on amended hardwood sawdust may have an excellent economic potential commercially. It takes 1 to 2 years for basidiocarps to appear in shiitake spawn inoculated logs.

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Choongsik Kim and Harry E. Sommer

Effects of autoclaving volume, gelling agent (Bactoagar, Gel-gro, Phytagar), and basal salts [Murashige and Skoog (MS); Woody Plant Medium (WPM); Gamborg B5 (GB)] on gel strength and pH of tissue culture media were tested. Gel strength was significantly affected by gelling agent and basal medium. MS media were generally softer than comparable WPM or GB media. As the vessel volume during autoclaving decreased, gel strength significantly decreased with Phytagar and Bactoagar gelling agents; Gel-gro had greater gel strength at the intermediate volume of medium autoclave. In all cases, autoclaving resulted in a pH decrease of 0.2 to 0.5 pH units. Lower pH values were associated with softer gels. The type of gelling agent did not greatly affect the postautoclave pH; mean values among gelling agents were within 0.05 pH units. Postautoclave pH of MS medium was lower than that of WPM or GB. This study verifies the need to observe uniform sterilization protocols to maintain consistency in the chemical and physical properties of media.

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Brent Tisserat, Danny Jones and Paul D. Galletta

Nutrient medium can be sterilized using a household-type microwave oven. The required microwave treatment time was influenced by the oven's microwave power intensity (70 to 700 W), vessel type, volume of medium employed, and the presence of energy sink water reservoirs (ESWR). Growth rates of strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) shootlets, lemon [Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f.] fruit halves, or carrot (Daucus carota L.) callus cultured on either microwaved or autoclaved media were similar. Microwaving and autoclaving appeared to reduce GA3 activity compared with medium containing filter sterilized GA3. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Doina Clapa, Claudiu Bunea, Orsolya Borsai, Adela Pintea, Monica Hârța, Răzvan Ştefan and Alexandru Fira

micropropagation protocols ( Gao et al., 2018 ; Hung et al., 2016 ; Kudryashova et al., 2012 ; Ružić et al., 2012 ). In the beginning, research was focused on finding the optimal culture media for micropropagation and checking the influence of diverse growth

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María del C. Montalvo-Peniche, Lourdes G. Iglesias-Andreu, Javier O. Mijangos-Cortés, Sara L. Nahuat-Dzib, Felipe Barahona-Pérez, Adriana Canto-Flick and Nancy Santana-Buzzy

and tissue culture media have been devised to optimize regeneration from specific cultivars ( Christopher and Rajam, 1994 ; Ramírez-Malagón and Ochoa-Alejo, 1996 ; Venkataiah and Subhash, 2001 ). Thus, the strong influence of the pepper variety

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Patricia Yolanda Zapata-Castillo, Adriana-Canto Flick, Guadalupe López-Puc, Anabel Solís-Ruiz, Felipe Barahona-Pérez, Nancy Santana-Buzzy and Lourdes Iglesias-Andreu

eliminate excess moisture from their surface, and deposited in the culture media. For germination, the seeds were placed in MS media, supplemented with 1.156 μ m giberelic acid (GA 3 ), 3% (w/v) of sucrose, and 0.2% (w/v) of gelrite. The behavior of

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María del Carmen Vadillo-Pro, Luis Hernández-Sandoval, Guadalupe Malda-Barrera, María Luisa Osorio-Rosales and Martín Mata-Rosas

30 mL of media were cultured, and there were 20 replicates. All cultures were incubated in a growth chamber at 25 ± 1 °C, under a 16-h photoperiod provided by cool-white fluorescent lamps (50 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 ). Induction stage on semisolid culture

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Rebecca C.-C. Hsu and Yung-I Lee

the mature seeds on culture media. The accumulation of cuticular material is commonly observed in the epidermal tissue, forming a vital hydrophobic barrier over the aerial surfaces, preventing water loss and gaseous exchanges ( Esau, 1977 ). In orchid