Pumpkins rank third in acreage among Ohio's fresh market vegetables. Recently, increasing incidence of insect-vectored viruses have threatened the economic potential of this crop. Studies were initiated in 1992 to obtain information on abundance of insect pests, to evaluate the effect of insecticides, reflective mulch and row covers on pest density and yield of marketable fruit. In 1994 and 1995, statewide virus surveys were conducted to determine virus types infecting the pumpkin crop. In 1992 the greatest insect injury of concern was cucumber beetle feeding on fruit rinds, Insecticides lowered pest density, but there was no effect on marketable yield. In 1993, yield of virus-infected fruit was lower were reflective mulch was used than where rowcovers or foliar insecticides were used. Marketable yield and virus incidence in 1994 were not affected by reflective mulch, rowcovers or stylet oil due to the late arrival of the virus. In 1995, aphid infestations at three locations were significantly lower on plants on reflective mulch than on plants on bare ground. Results of the 1994 virus survey showed that watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) was the most common virus in Ohio pumpkins. The watermelon mosaic developed late in the season and fruit deformity was not severe enough to affect marketable yield. There was some incidence of cucumber mosaic and squash mosaic virus but zucchini yellow mosaic virus was not detected in 1994. Results of ELISA testing of samples collected in August/September 1995 at 27 farms were 18 farms positive for watermelon mosaic virus, 5 sites positive for squash mosaic, 4 sites positive for papaya ringspot and 1 site positive for zucchini yellow mosaic.
Uniformity of sand deposition on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) farms was examined to evaluate the potential use of two sanding methods to suppress swamp dodder (Cuscuta gronovii) seedling emergence by seed burial. During a 2-year study, 24 farms were evaluated with sand applied by either water barge or directly on ice. To measure the depth of sand deposited on the surface, soil cores were taken every 5 m in a grid pattern on a randomly selected portion of a commercial Massachusetts cranberry farm. Both application methods delivered nonuniform depositions of sand with the majority of the samples measuring less than the target depth. Surface diagrams depicting sand depths indicated no particular patterns of error or deposition that could be advantageously adjusted by the grower at the time of application. Mean actual: target depth ratios were 63% and 66% for barge and ice sanding, respectively (100% indicating actual equaled target). In the best scenario (two farms), 47% of the sanded area received less than the target amount; 11 farms had at least 90% of actual sand depths below the target depth. For farmers targeting 25-mm sand depths (depth expected to suppress dodder germination), the mean actual: target depth ratio was 58%, indicating half of the actual sand depths measured less than 15 mm. Compaction of the sand layer due to the elapsed time period (6 weeks or more) between sand application and measurement may have contributed to the large number of samples that were lower than the target depth. Even so, the irregularity of deposition patterns and the large proportion of sand depths that were less than 25 mm indicated adequate suppression of dodder seedling emergence would be unlikely with either sanding method.
as prevention, monitoring, cultural control, and chemical awareness/control. MGs responded to the full set of questions on IPM practices for each of five kinds of plants: fruit, vegetables, flowers, trees, and lawns. As a result, data were explored to
turf species temporarily affected. Another technique of reducing herbicide usage is through cultural control methods. One of the most studied cultural control methods for crabgrass is mowing. Dernoeden et al. (1993) found a mowing height of 8.8 cm
production occurs ( Anonymous, 2006 ). No economically viable methods of cultural control are currently available. Therefore, effective long-term control of big vein disease is best accomplished through genetic resistance. Within cultivated lettuce, partially
groundcover species and their ability to outcompete and suppress weed growth in low maintenance landscapes. Other potential future research areas include parasitic weed (i.e., dodder and others), host specificity, and cultural control of weeds in the landscape
al., 2011 ). Intercropping is a potentially effective cultural control strategy for weeds in organic production systems. Intercropping is the practice of growing two or more crops within the same area such that there is biological and agronomic
The National Peach Council sponsored a workshop for scientists working on dormancy and hardiness of peach and other fruit trees on March 2, 1977 during its National Convention. The purpose of the workshop was to exchange ideas and to develop new ones with the aim of developing better techniques for preventing winter and spring freeze injury.
The workshop, attended mainly by participants from the Eastern U.S., included sessions on breaking and/or prolonging dormancy, environmental and cultural control of hardiness, freeze control systems, and natural control of hardiness. The following is a brief report on material covered. A more detailed report and a list of participants may be obtained upon request.
Yellow and purple nutsedge are problem perennials that resist common control measures. High temperatures, irrigation, and relatively non-competitive crops combine to greatly increase the severity of nutsedge infestations in the Southwest. We compared the growth and susceptibility of purple and yellow nutsedge to chemical and cultural control measures at several locations in southern California. When not controlled, low initial populations of either species led to heavy infestations later in the season. Purple nutsedge was far more prolific in both tuber production and above-ground growth. Summer rotations that included crops with dense canopies severly decreased nutsedge shoot and tuber growth. Cool-season crops planted into heavy nutsedge infestations in the fall are generally unaffected because nutsedge infestations in the fall are generally unaffected because nutsedge soon enters dormancy and ceases growth. Solarization, or pasteurization of the upper soil layers, was effective in decreasing tuber formation. Tillage effectively spread local infestations over larger areas.
Botrytis diseases are the most common and among the most destructive diseases affecting greenhouse-grown crops. Presently a combination of cultural control and fungicidal sprays are used to control the disease. Increasing energy and labor costs plus evidence of resistance of B. cinerea strains to commonly used fungicides has made the disease more difficult to control. A source of genetic resistance would provide an additional powerful and stable tool to control the incidence of Botrytis disease.
In this study screening techniques for Botrytis resistance in petunia were developed and 40 petunia genotypes were screened for resistance to B. cinerea. A wide range of variability for resistance to B. cinerea was discovered in petunia. Results indicate the presence of useful quantitative-type resistance to B. cinerea in petunia.