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Craig R Andersen and Danielle B. Williams

Pumpkin cultivar trials were held in 2003 and 2004 at the Agricultural Experiment Station Fayetteville, AR. 18 cultivars were direct seeded the 4th week of June. Plots 8 plants each, spaced 3 ft apart, 12 ft between rows were randomly replicated 6 times. Pumpkin fruit were harvested October 1 and evaluated for number, size shape, and quality. Plots were irrigated by drip irrigation and standard production practices were followed. During 2004 the same practices were followed except plots were planted during the second week of July. In 2003 large fruited pumpkins yielded 700 to 1950 fruit per acre. Howden, the industry standard yielded 700 fruit, averaging 16 lb each, with a gross return of $700/acre. Cultivar fruit size ranged from 15 to 27 lb, and yields ranged from 10200 to 52000 lbs to the acre. Based on the 1 Oct. 2003 prices from USDA AMS, gross returns ranged from $744 to $1760 per acre. Specialty types Jack be Quick, Rouge, and Long Island Cheese yielded 15700, 1800, and 1470 fruit per acre valued at $2100, 1950, and 3400 respectively. Excessive rain in June 2004, and cooler that normal weather during July and early August significantly affected quality and yields of pumpkin fruit. Fruit number and size per plot were reduced up to 75%. Yields ranged from 10% to 20% of 2003 yields. Fruit quality was significantly affected making most of the fruit harvest unmarketable due to immaturity and size.

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Robert J. McNeil* and Colleen M. Dettling

A 4-year `Satsuma' mandarin cultivar trial was conducted on the California Central Coast in San Luis Obispo. Cultivars compared were Owari, Dobashi Beni, and Okitsu Wase, all on Carizzo citrange rootstock. Trees were from 3 to 6 years of age and in their first 4 years of production during the four seasons that data was taken. Data taken each year was fruit maturity, color, size, and yield. Tree size was measured in the fourth year. `Okitsu Wase' fruit were harvestable 2 to 4 weeks earlier than `Owari' and `Dobashi Beni' considering meeting both minimum soluble solids to acid ratio (6.5/1) and minimum color (75%). `Okitsu Wase' was more consistent as to time of maturity. Maturity time of all cultivars varied each season based on weather. `Okitsu Wase' first minimum internal maturity varied from 15 Oct. to 1 Nov. Minimum color varied from 1 Nov. to 1 Dec. Dobashi Beni first internal maturity varied from 15 Oct. to 31 Dec. Minimum color varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. Owari first minimum internal maturity varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. Minimum color varied from 15 Nov. to 31 Dec. `Owari' had the highest total yield for the 4 years, followed by `Dobashi Beni'. `Okitsu Wase' had a significantly lower total yield than the other two cultivars for the 4 years. `Okitsu Wase' had higher percentages of smaller fruit and lower percentages of larger fruit than the other two cultivars in the first and fourth crop year, but had comparable percentages of larger fruit in the second and third year. The `Okitsu Wase' was a smaller tree than both the `Owari' and `Dobashi Beni' in height, width, and canopy volume.

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Neil O. Anderson

A case study is presented for use as an active learning tool for students in a floriculture potted plant production class. This is the second case study developed for Floratech, a potted plant finisher. Students work together in small groups to solve the proposed problems; each student role-plays as a Potted Plant Production Specialist. A memorandum from the Board of Directors is delivered in their first month on the job at Floratech. Objectives of this case study are to determine the students' fluency in terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for potted plant production of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and primrose (Primula sp.) as well as their ability to setup a scientifically rigorous and unbiased cultivar trial for Floratech personnel and selected customers. Students research the latest commercial catalogs to determine which species, series, and cultivars are available, as well as their relative merits, prior to choosing the appropriate cultivars to include in the trial. The trial setup has a space limitation of 2,000 ft2 (186 m2). This case study was tested with 20 undergraduate students during Fall Semester 1999. The case study demonstrated the students' fluency with terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for both crops. Their ability to set up a scientifically rigorous trial varied widely, often with an inadequate sampling of cultivars and excessive replications (56 ± 37 cyclamen to 132 ± 65 primrose). A mean ± sd of 4 ± 1 cyclamen and 7 ± 3 primrose series were chosen. The number of cultivars varied from 6 ± 2 cyclamen to 9 ± 4 primrose and the number of distributors was similar for the crops. Trial design and additional questions raised by the case study were discussed in class and applied in a cultivar trial in the lab. Unanswered questions were used as learning opportunities during class tours with local growers.

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Lisa W. Alexander, Anthony L. Witcher and Fulya Baysal-Gurel

grafted onto rootstock of vernal witchhazel. The cultivar trial was planted 27 Apr. 2016 in a randomized complete block design with three blocks (rows) and one replicate per cultivar per block. Plants were spaced 12 ft within the row and 12 ft between rows

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Lynn P. Brandenberger*, Lynda K. Wells and Bruce B. Bostian

The objectives of this trial were to collect yield and quality data on a fall planted carrot trial. Fifteen different carrot varieties were included in the trial. Plots were 20 feet by 2.5 feet and consisted of two rows of carrots with 15-inch row centers. Plots were replicated 4 times in a RBD. Carrots were direct seeded on 8 Aug. 2003 at 20 seeds per foot. Plots were fertilized with 90 lbs/acre of nitrogen and received overhead water as needed. Yield and quality data were recorded on 5 Dec. 2003. Data included exterior root color, interior root color, percentage of split and forked roots, overall yield, average root length and weight. Exterior root color did not vary significantly for any of the cultivars in the trial, but interior root color varied significantly for several cultivars. `First Class', `Bolero', and `C 7105' had the most distinct differences between the pith and out ring colors as indicated by the interior root color ratings and `Ingot' had the lowest. Interior root color ratings for these four cultivars were 3.8, 3.6, 3.1, and 1.4, respectively. Crispness did not vary for either the initial or second ratings that were recorded. Of potential defects only the percentage of forked roots varied significantly and of these four cultivars had less than 10% forked roots. `Florida', `Kamaran', `Pipeline', and `C 7105' had 5%, 7%, 9%, and 9% forked roots, respectively. `Samantha' had 31% forked roots, the highest percentage recorded in the trial. No differences were recorded for root weight, diameter or length. The three highest yielding cultivars in the trial were `Ingot', `Heritage', and `Neptune' that had overall yields of 24.9, 20.6, and 20.6 tons/acre. `Bremen' recorded the lowest yield in the trial with 13.7 tons/acre.

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M.D. Orzolek, W.J. Lamont and L. Otjen

Twenty-two cabbage cultivars were evaluated in the spring and 26 cabbage cultivars evaluated in the fall of 1997. The cultivars were evaluated for uniformity of maturity, marketable yield, percent cull, stem core length, and head firmness. In addition, three heads of each cultivar were tasted at harvest by the summer farm crew and responses noted on the data collection forms. The highest yielding cultivars were not necessarily the best performing ones evaluated in the trial. Average head weight was significantly different between spring and fall plantings. Data from this trial suggests that multiple cultivars should be grown in Pennsylvania based on whether it is a spring or fall cabbage crop.

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Kirk W. Pomper*, Joseph G. Masabni, Desmond R. Layne, Sheri B. Crabtree, R. Neal Peterson and Dwight Wolfe

The pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] has great potential as a new fruit crop. A pawpaw variety trial was established in Fall 1995 in Princeton, Ky. as a joint Kentucky State Univ.-Univ. of Kentucky research effort with the objective to identify superior varieties for Kentucky. A randomized block experimental design was used with 8 replicates of 28 grafted scion selections on seedling rootstock. Cultivars being tested included Middletown, Mitchell, NC-1, Overleese, PA-Golden, Rappahannock, Shenandoah, Sunflower, Susquehanna, Taylor, Tay-two, Wells, and Wilson. The other 15 clones were selections from the PawPaw Foundation. In 2002 and 2003, the following parameters were examined: tree survival, trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), average fruit weight, total fruit harvested per tree, average fruit per cluster, total yield per tree, and yield efficiency. In 2003, 54% of the trees had survived, with `Susquehanna' (13%) showing the poorest survival. Based on TCSA, most selections displayed excellent vigor, with the exception of the selections: 5-5 and `Overleese'. Average fruit weight was greatest in 1-7-2 (194 g), 1-68 (167g), 4-2 (321 g), 5-5 (225 g), 7-90 (166g), 9-58 (176 g), 10-35 (167 g), NC-1 (180 g), `Sunflower' (204 g), and `Shenandoah' (168g), with the smallest fruit in `Middletown' (70 g), `Wells' (78 g), and `Wilson' (88 g). The selections `Wilson' (81), `Middletown' (75), and `Wells' (70) had the greatest average number of fruit per tree, whereas 4-2 (9), 5-5 (17) and 8-20 (15) the fewest. Yield efficiency and average fruit per cluster also varied greatly among selections. Several pawpaw selections in the trial show promise for production in Kentucky.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve and P.C. Flanagan

Eighty-one accessions of oak species, hybrids, and cultivars from commercially available sources were established at TSU-NCRS in Fall 1993 and Spring 1994, using 10 single-plant replications in a randomized complete block. Drip irrigation was begun on a regular basis May 1994, and plants were fertilized regularly. Height and diameter was recorded Fall 1994 and 1995. Fastest growing oaks in order of cm height growth increment over the two growing seasons were nigra, phellos, texana nuttalli, cerris, macrocarpa, falcata pagodaefolia, macrocarpa `Maximus', acutissima, austrina, shumardii, muehlenbergi, falcata, robur fastigiata, lyrata, virginiana, palustris, acutissima `Gobbler', glandulifera, macrocarpa `Ashworth', gambelli ×macrocarpa, alba. Most evergeen oaks did not survive Winter 1995–96, and data will be reported on winterkill.

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Elsa Sánchez, Thomas Butzler, Lee Stivers, Robert Pollock, Timothy Elkner, Steven Bogash and William Lamont

Recent hypothetical modeling suggests that increasing commercial broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) acreage in the eastern United States has the potential to notably reduce the costs of transportation within the broccoli supply chain. In this region, increasing broccoli acreage will require production improvements. Here, research was conducted to determine the best yielding commercially available cultivars for broccoli production. Eighteen to 19 cultivars of broccoli were evaluated in spring and fall evaluations using diverse production systems during 2014–15 in three locations across Pennsylvania. Data collected included production, yield, and quality attributes. Most interactions between site, year, and cultivar were significant suggesting that environmental conditions influence broccoli yield, quality, and concentration of harvest. Overall, the cultivars evaluated were not different from, Imperial, the standard used, for marketable yield, head diameter, and concentration of harvest within a site year. Blue Wind was consistently the first cultivar harvested, and Avenger and Emerald Jewel the last overall site years and growing seasons. These three cultivars may be good options for extending the growing season.

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Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi and Donald S. Bailey

Basil (Ocimum sp.) is a fast-growing, high-value cash crop for aquaponics. Plant suitability evaluation in tropical conditions is critical to recommend new cultivars, increasing grower portfolio and minimizing the production risks associated with untested selections. Two trials were conducted to identify suitable basil cultivars for tropical outdoor aquaponics production using the University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) Commercial Aquaponics System in the U.S. Virgin islands. We evaluated five basil cultivars in Summer 2015 (Genovese, Lemon, Purple Ruffles, Red Rubin, and Spicy Globe), and seven cultivars in Fall 2015 (Cinnamon, Genovese, Lemon, Purple Ruffles, Red Rubin, Spicy Globe, and Thai). In both trials, 3-week-old seedlings were transplanted in net pots at a density of 1.5 plants/ft2 (16.15 plants/m2). The 6-inch portions and upper portions of the canopy were harvested as a salable product and the resultant material (leaves and stems) considered as total yield per square meter. In the summer, yield was higher in ‘Genovese’ (14.91 kg·m−2) and ‘Spicy Globe’ (13.99 kg·m−2); ‘Purple Ruffles’ resulted in the lowest yield (4.18 kg·m−2). Leaf anthocyanin was greater for the red cultivars Red Rubin [28.35 anthocyanin content index (ACI)] and Purple Ruffles (34.36 ACI) compared with the other cultivars. Chlorophyll content was the highest in ‘Genovese’ [48.59 chlorophyll content index (CCI)]. In the fall, ‘Cinnamon’ (6.60 kg·m−2), ‘Genovese’ (6.70 kg·m−2), and ‘Spicy Globe’ (6.35 kg·m−2) showed the highest yield and ‘Purple Ruffles’ the lowest (1.68 kg·m−2). Leaf anthocyanin differed in all cultivars, with the higher values in Purple Ruffles (80.5 ACI) and Red Rubin (36.5 ACI). Chlorophyll content was a response of plant growth and cultivar, with values increasing over time and ranging from 12.06 (Lemon) to 17.99 CCI (Cinnamon). Plant growth index (PGI) was higher than that of other cultivars in Genovese and Lemon on day 58 (summer), and higher in Cinnamon on day 87 (fall). Yield was greater during the summer, which was calculated from May to August, in comparison with the fall, calculated from September to November. Yield declined for the fourth harvest in the summer, indicating that growers may need to end production after the third harvest and replant the crop. The results of this experiment indicate that basil has potential as a specialty, short-season, and high-value crop in the UVI Commercial Aquaponics System. Of the cultivars tested, Genovese and Spicy Globe were the highest yielding cultivars within the environmental and geographical conditions of this study for two consecutive seasons (summer and fall).