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Yan Xu and Bingru Huang

Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a widely used cool-season grass species for golf course putting greens. It grows vigorously during spring and fall when growth temperatures are 18 to 24 °C for shoots and 10 to 18 °C for roots

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Kevin M. Miele, Jason J. Henderson and John C. Inguagiato

Fairways are the largest acreage of intensively managed turf on golf courses. On older courses, undesirable turfgrass species, such as annual bluegrass ( Poa annua L.) or older cultivars of otherwise desirable species [e.g., creeping bentgrass

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Marcus A. Jones, Nick E. Christians, Daniel Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera L.) is a cool-season grass well adapted to golf course greens, tees, and fairways that forms a dense, smooth surface ideal for golf when maintained at mowing heights less than 1.25 cm. However, creeping

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B. Todd Bunnell, Lambert B. McCarty, Roy B. Dodd, Hoke S. Hill and James J. Camberato

Increased soil moisture and temperature along with increased soil microbial and root activity during summer months elevate soil CO2 levels. Although previous research has demonstrated negative effects of high soil CO2 on growth of some plants, little is known concerning the impact high CO2 levels on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.). The objective of this study was to investigate effects of varying levels of CO2 on the growth of creeping bentgrass. Growth cells were constructed to U.S. Golf Association (USGA) greens specification and creeping bentgrass was grown in the greenhouse. Three different levels of CO2 (2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%) were injected (for 1 minute every 2 hours) into the growth cells at a rate of 550 cm3·min-1. An untreated check, which did not have a gas mixture injected, maintained a CO2 concentration <1%. Gas injection occurred for 20 days to represent a run. Two runs were performed during the summer of 1999 on different growth cells. Visual turf quality ratings, encompassing turf color, health, density, and uniformity, were evaluated every 4 days on a 1-9 scale, with 9 = best turf and <7 being unacceptable. Soil cores were taken at the end of each run. Roots were separated from soil to measure root depth and mass. Turf quality was reduced to unacceptable levels with 10% CO2, but was unaffected at lower levels over the 20-day treatment period. Soil CO2 ≥2.5% reduced root mass and depth by 40% and 10%, respectively.

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Ethan T. Parker, J. Scott McElroy and Michael L. Flessner

Smooth crabgrass and goosegrass are problematic weeds in creeping bentgrass in the transition zone, an area that rests between the southern United States where warm-season grasses dominate, and the northern United States where cool-season grasses

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Yingmei Ma and Emily Merewitz

soil solution ( Hasegawa et al., 2000 ). Creeping bentgrass does not possess major salt resistance mechanisms to rid plants of salt, such as salt glands, that are found in other grass species within Poaeceae ( Marcum, 2001 ). Since adequate avoidance

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Vijaya Shukla, Yingmei Ma and Emily Merewitz

-season turfgrass species such as creeping bentgrass. Additionally, PA fluxes are differential among species during stress incidence. Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plants compared with resurrection ( Craterostigma plantagineum ) plants tended to shift in

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Matthew T. Elmore, James A. Murphy and Bradley S. Park

-inhibiting herbicides and HPPD-inhibiting herbicides has been demonstrated previously, investigating tank mixtures of mesotrione and amicarbazone for creeping bentgrass control is warranted ( Woodyard et al., 2009 ). Research investigating herbicides for tough

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Lijuan Xie, Deying Li, Wenjuan Fang and Kirk Howatt

Creeping bentgrass is used widely on golf-putting greens and fairways in temperate regions. The strong tolerance to close mowing and low temperatures makes creeping bentgrass very competitive in its adapted region compared with other species ( Adams

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S.R. Mueller and W.R. Kussow

Immature sand matrix golf putting greens are considered to be inhospitable environments for microorganisms as compared to native soils. Subsequently, turfgrass quality may suffer in the absence of beneficial microbe–plant interactions. The turfgrass industry has responded by marketing a wide array of biostimulant products that claim to improve putting green quality through influences on soil microbial activity. A field study was conducted to determine what influences five commercial biostimulants have on the root-zone microbial community and creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) quality. A three year old U.S. Golf Association (USGA) specification sand-based putting green (e.g., 80% sand: 20% peat humus by volume) was the test site. Commercially available biostimulants and fertilizer were applied biweekly from May until August 2000. The soil microbial community was characterized using soil enzymes and substrate utilization profiles. Turfgrass quality was determined visually by evaluating color, percentage of localized dry spot (LDS), and overall uniformity. Nutrient uptake levels were monitored to ascertain if increases in quality related to plant health. Visual quality of the putting green was significantly improved (p < 0.05) by the commercial biostimulants. The positive response to biostimulants was not of a nutritional origin. The biostimulants did not effectively alter the putting green microbial community in terms of enzyme activity or substrate utilization. However, a seasonal decline was detected in cellulase activity, which prevailed over any treatment effect, suggesting the root-zone microbial community responded to summer decline of bentgrass roots and concomitant decreases in quantities of root exudates. Visual improvements in putting green quality during the period of summer stress were primarily associated with the incidence of LDS. Visual LDS ratings were significantly reduced (less LDS) by applications of the biostimulants on each observation date (p < 0.05) and over the entire course of the experiment (p < 0.10). Surfactant properties of the biostimulants therefore appeared to play a major role in the improvements in putting green quality. This does not negate the fact that the seaweed extracts and humic acids in the biostimulants may have improved the heat and moisture stress tolerance of the bentgrass once the LDS formed.