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Seth D. Wannemuehler, James J. Luby, Chengyan Yue, David S. Bedford, R. Karina Gallardo, and Vicki A. McCracken

Incorporating DNA-informed breeding techniques can improve selection efficiency for desired traits as compared with conventional breeding methods that do not use DNA-informed techniques. Incorporation of DNA technologies requires additional costs associated with reagents, equipment, and labor. To elucidate the cost-effectiveness of DNA-informed breeding in perennial crops with multiple years per generation, we conducted a cost–benefit analysis examining incorporation of marker-assisted selection (MAS), a type of DNA-informed breeding, applied to an apple breeding program. Annual operational costs for a midwest apple breeding program were used to develop a simulation with inputs including itemized costs and per unit costs for procedures at each breeding program stage. Simulations compared costs of MAS breeding techniques to conventional breeding methods to identify the break-even point (BEP) where cost-savings associated with MAS equals the accrued additional costs. Additional sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine changes in laboratory costs, seedling maintenance costs, and seedling evaluation costs. We found the BEP for this program occurs when MAS results in a removal rate of 13.18%, and changes to other costs (i.e., maintenance costs) result in a smaller percent decrease to the overall program budget. Our findings are useful to perennial crop breeding programs in which managers are considering incorporating DNA-informed breeding techniques.

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Charles E. Barrett, Xin Zhao, and Alan W. Hodges

, J.D. 2005 Root-knot nematode resistant cowpea cover crops in tomato production systems Agron. J. 97 1626 1635 10.2134/agronj2004.0290 Taylor, M. Bruton, B. Fish, W. Roberts, W. 2008 Cost benefit analysis of using grafted watermelon transplants for

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Ockert P.J. Stander and Paul J.R. Cronjé

expressed as milligrams per gram leaf dry weight and are referred to as leaf soluble sugars, leaf polysaccharides, and leaf starch, respectively. The sum values of the latter are referred to as leaf total carbohydrates. Cost-benefit analysis. Time (minutes

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Lucas G. Paranhos, Charles E. Barrett, Lincoln Zotarelli, Tatiana Borisova, Rebecca Darnell, and Kati Migliaccio

Seepage is characterized as an inefficient irrigation method with regard to water and nutrient use. There is a need for an economically viable irrigation alternative to seepage, which increases crop productivity and profitability in Florida. The use of plastic mulch and drip irrigation for cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) production increases plant population per area and reduces the irrigation water requirement. However, plasticulture has a high capital investment and operating cost. The objectives of this study were to compare the profitability of plasticulture cabbage production and traditional seepage bare ground irrigation systems for Florida cabbage production, and to determine the breakeven point for cabbage grown under plasticulture given a range of market prices. The preharvest cost per acre for the plasticulture system was significantly higher than the cost for the seepage system ($4726 and $3035 per acre, respectively). However, for all planting dates considered in this study, the plasticulture system resulted in a significant increase in marketable yields when compared with the seepage system. The resulting increase in potential revenue offset the increase in preharvest costs and assured a positive net return on investment over the whole range market prices. It was also observed that low air temperatures combined with reduced solar radiation can prevent optimum plant development for cabbage transplanted between November and mid-December. Therefore, the return on investment may be reduced during less favorable climatic conditions for cabbage growth, making the plasticulture system less economically desirable for certain planting dates.

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Jason Ernest Elvin Dampier, Richard W. Harper, Ashley McElhinney, and Eric Biltonen

. Rev. Entomol. 10 1 207 232 Boardman, A.E. Greenberg, D.H. Vining, A.R. Weimer, D.L. 2018 Cost–benefit analysis: Concepts and practice. 4th ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK Cornell University 2014 2014 Cornell pest management guide for

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Robert E. Rouse, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Fritz M. Roka, and Pamela Roberts

Citrus trees affected by huanglongbing (HLB) become diminished, weak, and develop dieback resulting in reduced production. Decline in fruit yield ultimately prevents economically acceptable commercial citrus production. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of severe pruning in combination with an enhanced foliar nutritional treatment on growth, yield, and juice quality of HLB-affected orange trees. The bacterial titer within the trees was monitored before and after treatments, and a cost–benefit analysis provided an economic evaluation of the treatments. Fifteen-year-old ‘Valencia’ orange (Citrus sinensis Macf.) trees on Swingle citrumelo rootstocks [C. paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] with 100% incidence of HLB, confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were severely pruned back to the main scaffold branches. Between 2010 and 2015, foliar nutrients were sprayed on both pruned and nonpruned trees to target new flush growth. Three enhanced nutritional foliar treatments were evaluated and compared with a control foliar nutritional treatment that was considered to be a standard practice before endemic HLB. The enhanced nutritional treatments included a mixture of micro- and macronutrients commonly known as the “Boyd cocktail,” a micronutrient package labeled Fortress © (Florida Phosphorus LLC, Key Largo, FL) sprayed with potassium nitrate (KNO3), and the Fortress © micronutrient package sprayed with urea. The experiment was a split-plot with seven replications, with pruning as the main plots, and a foliar nutritional treatment as subplots. Tree pruning was performed in Feb. 2010 before the spring flush. Pruned trees grew longer shoots than the controls the year after pruning. Canopy volume and leaf area were greater with nonpruned trees, but the chlorophyll content per cm2 leaf area was higher in the pruned trees compared with nonpruned trees in 3 years of the 5-year experiment. Pruned and nonpruned trees bloomed and set fruit the first year of the experiment in the spring of 2010–11. The fruit crop for the 2010–11 and 2014–15 seasons, and the overall total fruit crop for the 2010–15 season on pruned trees were significantly lower than those on nonpruned trees. However, no significant yield differences were found between pruned and nonpruned trees in the 2011–12, 2012–13, and 2013–14 growing seasons. Fruit yields from pruned trees never surpassed the yields from nonpruned trees, and this was possibly due to the severe-pruning treatment. Thus, severe pruning, as used in this trial, was not cost effective through the first 5 years after pruning. The rapid regrowth response of the pruned trees, however, may indicate that a reduced pruning approach could be effective at rejuvenating the HLB-affected trees, and an alternative to tree removal and replanting. Enhanced foliar nutrition treatments provided some yield benefits, especially in the early years of the trial. However, the enhanced foliar nutrition treatments did not prove to be cost effective.

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Seth D. Wannemuehler, Chengyan Yue, Wendy K. Hoashi-Erhardt, R. Karina Gallardo, and Vicki McCracken

. 34 1221 1225 Wannemuehler, S.D. Luby, J.J. Yue, C. Bedford, D.S. Gallardo, R.K. McCracken, V.A. 2019 A cost-benefit analysis of DNA informed apple breeding HortScience 54 1998 2004 Whitaker, V.M. 2011 Applications of molecular markers in strawberry J

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Laurence Gendron, Guillaume Létourneau, Julien Cormier, Claire Depardieu, Carole Boily, Raymond Levallois, and Jean Caron

step, we conducted a cost–benefit analysis to compare the positive and negative effects of adopting an automated irrigation system for pulsed irrigation instead of the nonpulsed, manual management system commonly used in the area (referred to as

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Joanne Logan

or other consultant to provide a more realistic cost-benefit analysis of a typical rain barrel. The objective of this study was to develop a spreadsheet-based model based on daily weather data in Excel® (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) to determine how

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Russell Galanti, Alyssa Cho, Amjad Ahmad, and Theodore Radovich

were analyzed using a Costech 4010 elemental analyzer at the University of Hawaii at Hilo Analytics Laboratory. Partial cost–benefit analysis. A partial cost–benefit analysis was conducted using cost information from the farmer. Material and application