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Megan Holmes and Tina M. Waliczek

750 per 100,000 ( Webb, 2009 ). The cost of housing a single inmate totals $31,286 annually ( Carson, 2015 ; DeLisi, 2001 ), and “federal, state, and local governments spent nearly $75 billion on corrections, with the large majority [spent] on

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Bruce W. Wood

decades, on methods for correction of Zn deficiency in pecan ( Alban, 1955 ; Alban and Hammar, 1941 , 1944 ; Banin et al., 1980 ; Harper, 1960 ; Payne and Sparks, 1982 ; Sparks, 1976 ; Worley et al., 1980 ). Tree and orchard Zn-related requirements

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Joel Flagler

Since 1992, Rutgers University-Cook College has been working with the New Jersey Dept. of Corrections and Division of Juvenile Services to develop and deliver training programs. One goal of this specialized training has been to make New Jersey's adjudicated youth more employable. Another goal has been to impart personal development skills that can lead to improved self-esteem and outlook.

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J.-L. Arsenault, S. Poulcur, C. Messier and R. Guay

WinRHlZO™ is a new root measuring system (1993) based on an optical scanner instead of a video camera. Scanners produce high-quality images, free of illumination problems, over large areas (typically 11 × 17 inches). They are also extremely easy to use, and do not need to be recalibrated each time the optical set up or the resolution is changed. Different lighting systems are also available. WinRHlZO™ is an interactive system; the user can see on screen with color codes what the system is measuring and can make corrections if needed. WinRHlZO™ has the capacity to detect overlapping root parts and to compensate for them in the final results. It measures total length, projected area, surface area, and root length for different width intervals chosen by the user. The results are shown in a printable histogram placed above the image. The system also counts root tips and branching points. It is possible to verify the width at different points along the root by clicking them in the image. WinRHlZO™ can analyze whole images or different parts of them. It runs on IBM-compatible software under Microsoft Windows 3.1 or NT, and on Macintosh computers.

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Michael A. Arnold

Quercus shumardii Buckl. seedlings were grown for 3 or 7 months in 2.3-liter black plastic containers. Containers were either treated or not on interior surfaces with 100 g Cu(OH)2/liter latex carrier. Trees were transplanted in summer or fall to quantify post-transplant responses to mechanical correction or chemical prevention of circling roots. Four treatments were used at each transplant date; nonpruned seedlings from Cu(OH)2-treated or nontreated containers, and seedlings from nontreated containers in which two mechanical root pruning techniques were used, traditional severing of circling roots on the rootball periphery or splitting and splaying the bottom two-thirds of the rootball at transplant (butterfly pruning). Traditional root pruning severed more small-diameter roots (≤0.5 mm), while butterfly pruning severed more large-diameter roots. During the first 21 days following transplant most root regeneration was via elongation of intact root tips. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings regenerated substantially more roots ≤1.0 mm in diameter and a greater root mass than mechanically root pruned or nonpruned seedlings. Both corrective mechanical pruning techniques resulted in greater predawn water stress during immediate post-transplant (21 days) establishment in October than seedlings chemically treated to prevent circling root development. Treatments that severed more roots and/or removed greater root mass were associated with decreased field performance and increased post-transplant water stress. Increased numbers of small- to medium-diameter new roots were associated with reduced post-transplant water stress and improved post-transplant shoot growth. Nonpruned and traditional root pruned seedlings grew little during the first two post-transplant growing seasons regardless of transplant date. Butterfly pruning resulted in severe dieback of shumard oak seedlings. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings were the only ones to exhibit a gain in height or stem diameter after 2 years in the field.

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Gerry Neilsen, Peter Parchomchuk, Michael Meheriuk and Denise Neilsen

Various schedules of 40 g N and 17.5 g P/tree per year were applied with irrigation water (fertigation) to `Summerland McIntosh' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees on M.9 rootstock commencing the year of planting. Leaf K concentrations averaged 0.82% dry mass, indicating deficiency, by the third growing season. This coincided with extractable soil K concentrations of 50-60 μg·g-1 soil in a narrow volume of the coarse-textured soil located within 0.3 m of the emitters. The decline in leaf K concentration was reversed and fruit K concentration increased by additions of K at 15-30 g/tree applied either as granular KCl directly beneath the emitters in spring or as KCl applied as a fertigant in the irrigation water. K-fertilization increased fruit red color, size, and titratable acidity only when leaf K concentration was <1%. Fruit Ca concentration and incidence of bitter pit or coreflush were unaffected by K application. NPK-fertigation commencing upon tree establishment is recommended for high-density apple orchards planted on similar coarse-textured soils.

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Michael A. Arnold

Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckl.) were grown in 2.3-liter (#1) containers painted on interior surfaces with Spin Out™ (100 g Cu(OH)2/liter, or not. Seedlings were transplanted to the field and root observation boxes in June and October. The effects of two mechanical root-pruning techniques, traditional (cutting roots on exterior rootball surfaces) and butterfly pruning (splitting and splaying the rootball apart), to correct circling roots were compared with Spin Out-treated seedlings. Only the Spin Out-treated seedlings and fall-transplanted nonpruned controls had a net increase in height and caliper after 2 years in the field. Few roots >1.5 mm in diameter were severed in June with mechanical pruning techniques, while butterfly pruning severed roots up to 8.5 mm in diameter in October. Root regeneration shifted from predominantly small roots ≤0.5 mm in diameter in June to roots of between 0.5 and 1.5 mm in diameter in October. Spin Out-treated seedlings regenerated substantially more roots with diameters <1.0 mm at both transplant times. While midday water potentials were similar among treatments, Spin Out-treated seedlings had the least negative predawn water potentials, suggesting better recovery from midday water stress, particularly following October transplanting.

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Bruce W. Wood, Rufus Chaney and Mark Crawford

The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency in certain horticultural crops merits development of fertilizer products suitable for specific niche uses and for correcting or preventing deficiency problems before marketability and yields are affected. The efficacy of satisfying plant nutritional needs for Ni using biomass of Ni hyperaccumulator species was assessed. Aqueous extraction of Alyssum murale (Waldst. & Kit.) biomass yielded a Ni-enriched extract that, upon spray application, corrects and prevents Ni deficiency in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. The Ni-Alyssum biomass extract was as effective at correcting or preventing Ni deficiency as was a commercial Ni-sulfate salt. Foliar treatment of pecan with either source at ≥10 mg·L–1 Ni, regardless of source, prevented deficiency symptoms whereas treatment at less than 10 mg·L–1 Ni was only partially effective. Autumn application of Ni to foliage at 100 mg·L–1 Ni during leaf senescence resulted in enough remobilized Ni to prevent expression of morphologically based Ni deficiency symptoms the following spring. The study demonstrates that micronutrient deficiencies are potentially correctable using extracts of metal-accumulating plants.

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Richard H. Mattson*, Eunhee Kim, Gary E. Marlowe and Jimmy D. Nicholson

At the Lamar County Adult Probation Program in Paris, Texas, a three-year study (Spring 2001-Fall 2003) involving 376 probationers was conducted to investigate the rehabilitative effects on probationers of a horticulture vocational training program. Data were collected on 189 adults who were randomly assigned to a horticulture group doing greenhouse plant production and vegetable gardening activities. The horticulture group was compared with 187 adults who were in a non-horticulture community service group doing trash clean-up and janitorial work. Within the horticulture group, significant improvement occurred in horticultural knowledge (KSU General and Specific Horticulture Exams), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and environmental awareness (Environmental Response Inventory). These changes did not occur within the non-horticulture community service group. Future research will examine recidivism rates and vocational placements of probationers from both groups.

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Timothy K. Broschat

). Palm fertilization Because correction of existing nutrient deficiencies in palms can take up to 2 years or longer, and symptomatic leaves will be present on the palm during that time, emphasis should be placed on fertilization to prevent deficiencies