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Hailin Shen, Zhendong Liu, Ke Yan, Liren Zou, Jinghui Wen, Yinshan Guo, Kun Li, and Xiuwu Guo

) and N 1 -(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N 3 -phenylurea (CPPU) on gender conversion efficiency in male amur grape and found that CPPU was more efficient, resulting in a fruit setting rate of 96.7%. Xu et al. (2013) analyzed proteomic changes during the gender

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Jared. A. Hoyle, Gerald M. Henry, Travis Williams, Aaron Holbrook, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Andrew J. Hephner

from stress ( Beard, 1973 ; Youngner, 1961 ); however, this may also make it difficult to control during conversion to buffalograss. Traditional renovation practices usually involve the desiccation of existing turfgrass through the application of a non

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Andrew E. Beebe, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Shijian Zhuang, Karl T. Lund, Glenn McGourty, and Larry J. Bettiga

; Wessner and Kurtural, 2013 ) in vineyards trellised specifically for experimental purposes. However, there is a lack of information on how grapevines respond to conversion from head-trained and CP vineyards to mechanical management. Furthermore, it is not

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G. E. Fitzpatrick and S. D. Verkade

Many pesticide labels contain rate recommendations in units that are not readily pertinent to container nursery production situations.

A program is presented, in the RPN programming language, for the conversion of pesticide rate terms from lb per ft2 to grams per container: f LBL A, RCL 2, ENTER, 1, 4, 4, X, STO 5, RCL 3, ENTER, 2, ENTER, g X2, f, X, STO 4, RCL 1, 4, 5, 3, ·, 9, X, STO 9, RCL 9, ENTER, RCL 9, ENTER, RCL 4, X, RCL 5,, g RTN.

Use of this program allows precise conversions of agricultural chemical application rates for container grown horticultural crops.

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S.A. Merkle and B.A. Watson-Pauley

Low conversion rates of somatic embryos and poor early growth of somatic embryo-derived plantlets of some forest trees may be related as much to prolonged maintenance in vitro as to basic developmental problems with the embryos. We tested ex vitro conversion as an alternative method for producing the rare North American pyramid magnolia (Magnolia pyramidata Bartram) plantlets from somatic embryos. Tissue cultures were initiated from immature seed explants of pyramid magnolia. Immature seeds collected from each of three trees formed proembryogenic masses (PEMs) following 7 to 10 weeks of continuous culture on semisolid medium containing 9.0 μm 2,4-D, 1.1 μm BA, and 1 g casein hydrolysate/liter. PEMs transferred to semisolid medium without plant growth regulators produced somatic embryos that germinated following transfer to the same medium without casein hydrolysate. Conversion frequency to plantlets was higher and plantlets were more vigorous when germinants were transferred directly to potting mix and grown in a humidifying chamber instead of being maintained in plantlet development medium in test tubes. Chemical names used: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (BA).

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Norman R. Scott, Corinne Johnson Rutzke, and Louis D. Albright

One of the deterrents to the commercial adoption of controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) on a broad scale is the significant energy cost for lighting and thermal environmental control. Advances in energy conversion technologies, such as internal combustion engines (ICs), microturbines and fuel cells, offer the potential for combined heat and power (CHP) systems, which can be matched with the needs of CEA to reduce fossil-based fuels consumption. A principal concept delineated is that an integrated entrepreneurial approach to create business and community partnerships can enhance the value of energy produced (both electrical and heat). Energy production data from a commercial dairy farm is contrasted with energy use data from two greenhouse operations with varying energy-input requirements. Biogass produced from a 500-cow dairy combined with a 250-kW fuel cell could meet nearly all of the energy needs of both the dairy and an energy-intensive 740-m2 CEA greenhouse lettuce facility. The data suggest CEA greenhouses and other closely compatible enterprises can be developed to significantly alter agriculture, as we have known it.

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Javier Castillón and Kathryn Kamo

Embryogenic callus cultures of three genetically diverse cultivars of rose (Rosa hybrida L.), the floribunda `Trumpeter', the multiflora `Dr. Huey', and the hybrid tea `Tineké', were used to study the effect of various carbohydrates and osmotically active compounds on somatic embryo maturation and conversion. Cotyledonary-stage embryos were produced by dispersing callus in liquid medium followed by filtration to isolate globular-stage embryos. Quantitative experiments were conducted to determine maturation and conversion of the three rose cultivars in response to medium with sucrose, glucose, fructose, or maltose as the primary carbon source and also in response to various concentrations of either myo-inositol, polyethylene glycol, or mannitol in combination with 3% sucrose. Conversion of 27% was achieved for `Trumpeter' embryos following their maturation on 3% fructose. `Dr. Huey' embryos required maturation on medium containing 3% sucrose supplemented with either 2.5% or 5% mannitol for 36% and 61% conversion, respectively. Maturation of `Tineké' embryos on either 3% sucrose, 3% glucose, or 3% fructose resulted in a maximum 12% conversion.

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I.E. Yates and Darrell Sparks

Scion wood of `Desirable' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] was grafted onto the lateral roots of 70-year-old `Van Deman' seedling rootstocks for evaluation as an alternative to planting nursery-grown trees for orchard cultivar conversion. Grafting treatments included application of IBA, method of grafting, position of graft, and grafting time. Survival was higher for grafts treated with IBA than those without IBA, for modified bark grafts positioned beneath the soil line than for either modified hark grafts positioned above the soil line or inlay grafts, and for grafts made 6 to 8 weeks after budbreak than later in the season. Techniques developed in this study demonstrate that cultivar conversion of > 75% is possible. Chemical name used: lH -indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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David W. Ramming, Richard L. Emershad, and Carol Foster

Various in vitro conditions for culture of ovules prior to extraction and culture of immature embryos of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch var. nucipersica Schneid.] were investigated. Culture vessels consisting of test tubes, petri dishes, and polycarbonate jars were tested along with various types of support and nutrient media. Agar support was superior to liquid media with filter paper supports. Agar produced the largest embryos with 90% to 93% being converted into plants compared to liquid with only 1% to 12% embryo conversion. The best ovule orientation and support was with the micropyle down and pushed halfway into an agar-gelled medium. In experiments two and three, test tubes with vertical ovule orientation (micropyle end of ovule pushed into agar) produced larger embryos, the largest plants and the greatest percentage of embryos that converted into plants (60% and 91%). Petri dish treatments were less successful in embryo conversion than test tubes and polycarbonate jars. The addition of activated charcoal (AC) to an agar-gelled medium produced significantly larger embryos with a similar conversion rate. The addition of an agar-gelled medium to culture vessels reduces preparation time compared to filter paper supports, and placing each ovule within a test tube eliminates cross contamination, making immature embryo culture more successful.

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Paul W. Wilson, David H. Picha, and John M. Aselage

Changes in fructose, sucrose, and glucose were investigated in cured roots of `Beauregard', `Jewel' and `Travis' sweet potatoes stored at 15°C and 1.5°C for 8 wk. Samples of 6 roots each in triplicate were analyzed at 2 wk intervals. At each interval, samples were also heated for 5, 10, 20 or 40 min. at 100°C to determine changes in rate of maltose conversion. Roots stored at 15°C displayed gradual or no increase in sugars over the 8 wk. Roots stored at 1.5°C increased more rapidly in sugars, especially fructose, over the same time. `Jewel' had the greatest increase in the sugars when stored at 1.5°C. There was no consistent pattern of maltose conversion in roots stored at 15°C over the 8 wk storage time. Roots stored at 1.5°C displayed a reduction in ability to convert starch to maltose upon heating. Less maltose was produced with increasing time of storag at 1.5°C. `Beauregard' and `Jewel' changed the most, while `Travis' changed only slightly.