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T.K. Hartz and R.F. Smith

Research on the use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) in California vegetable production has been conducted for more than 30 years. Since Lorenz et al. (1972) evaluated CRF for potato ( Solanum tuberosum ), tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum

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Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan, and Jerry B. Sartain

Restoration Act of 1999 ( Bartnick et al., 2005 ). Controlled-release fertilizers are soluble fertilizer (SF) coated in polymer, resin, or sulfur-coated urea in a polymer coating ( Trenkel, 2010 ). Field measurements of CRF N release have been made by

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Taun Beddes and Heidi A. Kratsch

sustainable production ( Urbano, 1989 ). The use of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) for crop fertilization has been touted as a means to reduce NO 3 -N leaching from containerized nursery crops ( Colangelo and Brand, 2001 ), and CRF is now widely used in

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Fernanda Trientini and Paul R. Fisher

in ion concentration and pH over time require constant monitoring and adjustment ( Sonneveld and Voogt, 2009 ). Sophisticated real-time monitoring and control are unlikely to be feasible for small-scale home gardeners. Controlled-release fertilizers

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Sueyde Fernandes de Oliveira Braghin, Simone C. Mello, Jéssika Angelotti-Mendonça, Keigo Minami, and Yuncong C. Li

crotons with esthetic quality and low N leaching. Literature Cited Andiru, G.A. Pasian, C.C. Frantz, J.M. Jourdan, P. 2013 Longevity of controlled-release fertilizer influences the growth of bedding impatiens HortTechnology 23 157 164 Augusto, D

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Margaret M. Saska and Yulia A. Kuzovkina

-grown willows used for cut-stem production based on yield and timing of tip abscission and floral bud burst across five concentrations of controlled-release fertilizer. Yield data were collected on commercially important parameters: total stem length, stem

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Kelly T. Morgan, Kent E. Cushman, and Shinjiro Sato

controlled-release fertilizer (CRF; referred to collectively as S/CRF) release N, and in some cases, other fertilizer elements, at different rates and through different mechanisms ( Sartain et al., 2004 ). These release mechanisms will be discussed below

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Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton

ammonium (NH 4 + ) to nitrate (NO 3 − ) by bacteria or to slow the enzymatic transformation of urea to NH 4 + ( Trenkel, 1997 ). Controlled-release fertilizers, the last subgroup of EEFs, are urea, ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, or other soluble

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L. Carolina Medina, Thomas A. Obreza, Jerry B. Sartain, and Robert E. Rouse

, including the use of controlled-release fertilizer technology, may improve N use efficiency and decrease the potential for N loss to the environment. Controlled-release fertilizer is formulated to gradually deliver nutrients to plants at a rate that matches

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Heather Hasandras, Kimberly A. Moore, and Lyn A. Gettys

developed with hydrilla to grow southern naiad to increase its production and expand its use in natural aquatic ecosystem restoration. The objective of this study was to determine which substrate and controlled-release fertilizer rate would result in the