Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10−7 m to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.
Poster Session 11—Controlled Environments 18 July 2005, 1:15–2:00 p.m. Poster Hall–Ballroom E/F
The term controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) was first introduced in the 1960s and refers to an intensive approach for controlling plant growth and development by capitalizing on advanced horticultural techniques and innovations in technology
121 ORAL SESSION (Abstr. 613-620) CROSS-COMMODITY GROWTH CHAMBERS AND CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS
142 ORAL SESSION 41 (Abstr. 662–667) Controlled Environments–Vegetables
Organic vegetable production under glass or in other protected environments, hereto referred as controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) is growing, according to the 2014 census of organic agriculture reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture
organized by the ASHS Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants and Controlled Environments Working Groups held at the ASHS Annual Conference Las vegas, Nevada 21 July 2005
The development of controlled environments in the early 1950’s with sufficient radiation intensity to obtain vigorous plant growth initiated a rapid explosion of environmental research. It was an explosion that provided a decade or a decade and one-half of real excitement in plant physiology. Many light, temperature and carbon dioxide interactions were unraveled, as it was possible to vary one factor and hold all other factors of the environment constant. The controlled environment was a must for plant physiologists if their work was to have real validity.
To assess the cost and area/volume requirements of a farm in a space station or Lunar or Martian base, a few laboratories in the United States, the Soviet Union, France, and Japan are studying optimum controlled environments for the production of selected crops. Temperature, light, photoperiod, CO2, humidity, the root–zone environment, and cultivars are the primary factors being manipulated to increase yields and harvest index. Our best wheat yields on a time basis (24 g·m–2·day–1 of edible biomass) are five times good field yields and twice the world record. Similar yields have been obtained in other laboratories with potatoes and lettuce; soybeans are also promising. These figures suggest that ≈30 m2 under continuous production could support an astronaut with sufficient protein and about 2800 kcal-day-1. Scientists under Iosif Gitelzon in Krasnoyarsk, Siberia, have lived in a closed system for up to 5 months, producing 80% of their own food. Thirty square meters for crops were allotted to each of the two men taking part in the experiment.
to harvest maturity indoors ( Mitchell, 2004 ). The umbrella term “controlled-environment agriculture” (CEA) covers additional appellations including “indoor agriculture” (IA), “indoor farming” (IF), “vertical farming” (VF), “plant factories” (PF