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Lauri M. Baker, Cheryl R. Boyer, Hikaru H. Peterson and Audrey E.H. King

methods A quantitative content analysis was used to determine how horticultural businesses were using ODS to sell live plants to customers. This research method allows for objective and systematic quantitative description of content ( Berelson, 1952

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Elisa Solis-Toapanta, Andrei Kirilenko and Celina Gómez

percentage (>50%) of responses to OPs would provide inaccurate information. To our knowledge, no other horticulture-related studies have used data mining and content analysis methods to identify knowledge gaps within active online communities. Materials and

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D. Michael Glenn and Carole Bassett

Plant ash content has been highly correlated with plant water use efficiency (WUE) and Δ13C (Δ) in field crops and grassland species and proposed as a selection criteria for WUE. δ18O (δ) has also been correlated with transpiration in herbaceous plants. The objectives of the study were to 1) evaluate the relationship of shoot ash (ASH) with Δ and δ in ‘Empire’ apple over a 3-year period; 2) determine if yearly variation significantly affected the relationship of ASH with Δ and δ; and 3) evaluate the value of the relationship between ASH content with Δ and δ for a population of Malus sieversii. ‘Empire’ leaf area index (LAI) was negatively correlated with ASH content and positively correlated with Δ. Δ was negatively correlated with ‘Empire’ ASH. There were no yearly effects at a site. Within the Malus sieversii accessions, there was a grouping based on ASH that could be identified and this outlier group also had the lowest δ of the accessions. There were no correlations of leaf area, number, length, width, or stomata number with δ, Δ, or ASH for the Malus sieversii accessions. Rather than a substitute for Δ measurement in assessing WUE, ash content analysis adds an additional dimension to understanding the dynamics of WUE in apple. This work has identified a unique population of Malus meriting further study.

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Carlee Steppe, Sandra B. Wilson, Zhanao Deng, Keri Druffel and Gary W. Knox

Trailing lantana (Lantana montevidensis) is a popular low-growing ornamental plant valued for its heat and drought tolerance and continuous purple or white flowering throughout much of the year. Recently, trailing lantana was predicted to be invasive by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF-IFAS) Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida, and therefore not recommended for use. All cultivars fall under this designation unless proven otherwise. Eight trailing lantana varieties were obtained from wholesale growers and naturalized populations found in Texas and Australia. Plants were propagated vegetatively, finished in 4-inch pots, and planted under field conditions to determine morphological and cytological differences among varieties. Australian trailing lantana differed morphologically from the other varieties in its smaller habit, leaves (which had serrate-crenate leaf margins, and fewer appressed hairs), heavy fruiting, and cold sensitivity (observational reduced growth and flowering during winter months). Nuclear DNA content analysis suggests that Australian trailing lantana is likely a tetraploid and all other varieties evaluated were likely triploids with high levels of sterility. Pollen stainability of Australian trailing lantana was moderately high (58.83%), whereas pollen production was rarely observed in all other varieties. Results support that there are two forms of trailing lantana, the U.S. varieties distinguished by their leaf and flower morphology, ploidy level, and the absence of fruit and viable pollen.

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Jonathan N. Egilla and Isabelle Nyirakabibi

Two-week-old seedlings of cos lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) `Cimmaron' were transferred into NFT hydroponic troughs in July and Sept. 2005. The crop was grown either in a polyethylene or polycarbonate greenhouse. Mean July temperature and maximum relative humidity (RH) in the two greenhouses were 30.5 and 27.7 °C ± 0.32 °C; 81.3% and 84.7%, respectively. In September, the mean temperature and RH in the same greenhouses were 22.6 °C and 21.9 °C ± 0.30 °C; 95.6% and 99.2%, respectively. Lettuce crop grown with Peters Excel® [15N–5P2O5–15K2O; (Excel)], had higher fresh mass (FM) and dry mass (DM) compared with either Peat-lite®; [15N-16P2O5-17K2O; (Peat-lite)] or All-Purpose Hydroponic Fertilizer® [9N-4P2O5-15 K2O; (All-Purpose)], but lower DM/FM. At harvest, the crop had good market quality, regardless of mineral nutrient source (MNS). MNS significantly (P ≤ 0.05) influenced yield (FM and DM) in September, regardless of greenhouse type. However, in July only Peat-lite caused significant (P < 0.0252) increase in DM, under the higher temperature condition of greenhouse I. This trend suggests that good quality lettuce and sustained yield can be obtained with the soluble fertilizers Excel and Peat-lite, which are not formulated for hydroponic crop production. Furthermore, `Cimmaron' can produce satisfactory yield under relatively high temperature conditions. However, taste panel evaluation and nutrient content analysis of lettuce produced with these various fertilizers are necessary to determine consumer satisfaction.

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Irene E. Palmer, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch and Richard E. Bir

Rudbeckia L. are valuable nursery crops that offer broad adaptability and exceptional ornamental merit. However, there is little information on interspecific and interploid crossability and ploidy levels of specific cultivars. The objectives of this study were to determine the ploidy levels and relative DNA contents (genome sizes) of selected species and cultivars, to evaluate self-compatibility and crossability among species and ploidy levels, and to explore reproductive pathways in triploid R. hirta L. with the goal of facilitating future breeding endeavors and development of new hybrids. Reciprocal interspecific crosses were performed between R. hirta cultivars and R. fulgida Ait., R. missouriensis Engelm. ex C.L. Boynton & Beadle, and R. subtomentosa Pursh. as well as reciprocal interploid crosses among four R. hirta cultivars. A combination of relative DNA content analysis and chromosome counts was used to test for hybridity and to determine ploidy levels for selected species, cultivars, and interploid R. hirta F1 hybrids. Of the specific clones tested, R. subtomentosa and R. missouriensis were diploid, R. fuligida varieties were tetraploid, and R. hirta include both diploid and tetraploid cultivars. Mean 1Cx DNA content varied over 320% among species. The interploid R. hirta crosses produced triploids as well as pentaploids and hexaploids. Seedlings from open-pollinated triploid R. hirta appeared, based on diverse phenotypes and DNA contents, to be aneuploids resulting from sexual fertilization, not apomixis. Of the 844 seedlings from interspecific F1 crosses, only one individual, R. subtomentosa ×R. hirta, had a DNA content intermediate between its parents and was confirmed as the only interspecific hybrid. Although most taxa had low self-fertility, seedlings (with genomic sizes similar to their maternal parent) resulted after interspecific crosspollination, indicating that pseudogamy is one reproductive pathway in Rudbeckia species.

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Glenn B. Fain, Charles H. Gilliam, Thomas V. Gallagher, H. Allen Torbert and Jeff L. Sibley

A study was conducted at Auburn University in Auburn, AL, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, Southern Horticultural Laboratory in Poplarville, MS, to evaluate clean chip residual (CCR) as an alternative substrate component for annual bedding plant production. Clean chip residual used in this study was processed through a horizontal grinder with 4-inch screens at the site and was then processed again through a swinging hammer mill to pass a 3/4- or 1/2-inch screen. Two CCR particle sizes were used alone or blended with 10% (9:1) or 20% (4:1) peatmoss (PM) (by volume) and were compared with control treatments, pine bark (PB), and PB blends (10% and 20% PM). Three annual species, ‘Blue Hawaii’ ageratum (Ageratum houstonianum), ‘Vista Purple’ salvia (Salvia ×superba), and ‘Coral’ or ‘White’ impatiens (Impatiens walleriana), were transplanted from 36-cell (12.0-inch3) flats into 1-gal containers, placed on elevated benches in a greenhouse, and hand watered as needed. Ageratum plants grown at Auburn had leaf chlorophyll content similar or greater than that of plants grown in PB. There were no differences in salvia; however, impatiens plants grown in PB substrates at Auburn had less leaf chlorophyll content than those grown in CCR. There were no differences in ageratum, salvia, or impatiens leaf chlorophyll content at Poplarville. There were no differences in growth indices (GI) or shoot dry weight (SDW) of ageratum, while the largest salvia was in PB:PM and the largest impatiens were in PB-based substrates at Auburn. The GI of ageratum at Poplarville was similar among treatments, but plants grown in 4:1 1/2-inch CCR:PM were the largest. Salvia was largest in 4:1 CCR:PM and PB:PM, and although there were no differences in GI for impatiens at Poplarville, the greatest SDW occurred with PB:PM. Foliar nutrient content analysis indicated elevated levels of manganese and zinc in treatments containing CCR at Auburn and PB at Poplarville. At the study termination, two of three annual species tested at both locations had very similar growth when compared with standard PB substrates. This study demonstrates that CCR is a viable alternative substrate in greenhouse production of ageratum, salvia, and impatiens in large containers.

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Li-Chun Huang and Li-Chun Chen

of florists’ post contents, to clarify florists’ message strategies on the Facebook brand page. A content analysis was performed on the 1646 posts to achieve the goal of this study ( Downe-Wamboldt,1992 ). The first step was to construct a

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content analysis study to evaluate the status and quality of e-commerce for 498 horticultural businesses across the U.S. They found few businesses selling live plants online, whether on their own website or via Amazon.com , leaving opportunities for

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Madhulika Sagaram and Jacqueline K. Burns

). Starch content analysis. Symptomatic, asymptomatic, and healthy leaves collected from field studies were used for starch content analyses. Leaves were weighed, rinsed with water, dried and weighed, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and ground in a chilled