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Chris A. Martini, Dewayne L. Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Abbreviations: A, leaf carbon assimilation; Ci, intercellular CO,; gs, stomata] conductance; LC, liter containers; TA, temperature at canopy height; TC, temperature at center location; TI, time of day; VO, container volume. Graduate research

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Nikki Hanson, Amy L. Ross-Davis, and Anthony S. Davis

these larger seedlings also have higher survival rates and continue to realize greater growth rates in the field after planting ( Pinto et al., 2015 ; Sutherland and Day, 1988 ). Similar to increased container volume, identifying optimal species

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Y.M. Hsu, M.J. Tseng, and C.H. Lin

The wax-apple [Syzygium samarangense (Bl.) Merr. & Perry] is a vigorous tropical fruit tree species that has five to six growth flushes per year. One-year-old, root-bearing wax-apple trees were grown in different-sized containers filled with potting mixture to test if container volume restricts shoot and/or root growth and thereby lends itself to forcing culture. The trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) at 15 cm above the soil was measured to assess vegetative growth. After 6 months, the TCSA had increased quadratically with container volume. At the end of the first and second year, leaf count, leaf area, leaf dry mass, stem dry mass, shoot dry mass, and root dry mass were positively correlated with container volume. However, the shoot: root ratios remained fairly constant among treatments during the experimental period. Thus, root restriction is an effective means of reducing shoot and root growth of the wax-apple.

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Jennifer Marohnic and Robert L. Geneve

Marigold seedlings were grown in four containers that differed in both volume and shape. Seedlings grown in 1.5-gal containers showed the greatest potential for shoot and root development 20 days after sowing. These seedlings had greater leaf area, shoot and root dry weight, and total root number and length compared to seedlings grown in 406 plug trays, 72-cell packs, or 6-inch containers. There was a positive correlation (r 2 = 0.81) between cell volume and seedling growth as well as a positive correlation (r 2 = 0.89) between container height with seedling growth. An attempt was made to separate the impact of container volume vs. container height on seedling growth. Containers were designed using acrylics to vary the container height while keeping the volume constant at 1500 cm3. There was a positive correlation (r 2 = 0.87) between shoot and root dry weight with container height. The data suggest that both container volume and height contribute to overall seedling growth in marigold, but when container volume is not limiting, container height has a large impact on seedling development.

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Scott A. Derby and L. Eric Hinesley

Germination and growth of atlantic white cedar [Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.] was evaluated in response to four container volumes (98 to 530 cm3), two substrates [North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS) container mix [3 canadian peat: 2 coarse vermiculite: 1.5 perlite (by volume), and 3 composted pine bark: 1 peat (by volume)], two controlled-release fertilizers [Osmocote 15N–4.0P–10.0K (15N–9P2O5–12K2O), 12- to 14-month southern formulation, with micros; and Polyon 18N–2.6P–10.0K (18N–6P2O5–12K2O) with micros, 9-month formulation], and three irrigation frequencies (2, 3, or 4 times daily). Although growth increased up to the maximum container volume (530 cm3), the optimum for 1-year-old seedlings appeared to be 164 to 262 cm3. The higher peat content and water holding capacity of the NCFS substrate yielded better growth than 3 bark: 1 peat. Osmocote yielded larger and heavier plants than Polyon, probably owing to more available phosphorus in the former. Irrigation three times daily was optimum. Suitable manipulation of container volume, substrate, fertilizer, and irrigation should yield high quality containerized atlantic white cedar seedlings.

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Eva Domínguez, Jesús Cuartero, and Rafael Fernández-Muñoz

Using soil bed cultivations as controls and under two temperature regimes (maximum/minimum ≈20/4 °C and 25/10 °C), effects of container volume (16-, 10-, and 3-L pots) on in vitro germination, in vivo tube growth, acetocarmine staining, and quantity of pollen of tomato [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Moneymaker', L. pennellii (Corr.) D'Arcy accession PE-45, and of the corresponding F1 hybrid] were studied. Under the 20/4 °C regime, in comparison with soil-bed cultivated control plants, the cold sensitive cultivar, Moneymaker, grown in the two smaller pots showed significant increases of in vitro pollen germination, acetocarmine staining, and number of pollen grains produced per flower. Similar results were observed with the F1 except for the number of pollen grains which were not significantly different. Pollen of accession PE-45 was unaffected by cold and no container effect was detected. Results of in vivo pollen tube growth in `Moneymaker' at the 20/4 °C regime showed that fruit set was only possible in 3-L pots. Reduction of the negative effects of cold on pollen from plants grown in the 3-L pots may be explained in part by the daytime rise of root-zone temperatures that did not occur in the 10- or 16-L pots or in the soil bed. Therefore, fruit production of tomato plants grown under low temperatures in small pots may not be a valid predictor of commercial winter fruit production of plants cultivated in soil beds.

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Marc van Iersel

Container size can affect the growth and development of bedding plants. The effects of widely differing container sizes on growth and development of salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex Roem. & Schult.) were quantified. Plants were grown in a greenhouse in 7.3-, 55-, 166-, and 510-mL containers. Container volume affected plant growth as early as 18 days after planting. Growth was positively correlated with pot size and differences increased throughout most of the growing period. Growth of the plants in the 7.3-mL cells was reduced because of a low net assimilation rate (4.34 g·m-2·d-1), compared to the plants in the 55-, 166-, and 510-mL pots (≈5.44 g·m-2·d-1). Plants in 510-mL containers grew faster than those in 55- and 166-mL containers because of a higher leaf area ratio. Both lateral branching and leaf expansion were suppressed by root restriction and flowering was delayed. The growth rate of plants in 166-mL pots declined after the onset of flowering, and final plant size was comparable for plants in 55- and 166-mL pots. Although water deficit stress or nutrient deficiencies cannot be excluded as contributing factors, these were probably not the main reason for observed differences.

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Chris A. Martin, Dewayne L Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Trees were grown for 2 years as a function of three container volumes (10, 27, and 57 liter) the first year and six shifting treatments (10 liter both years, 10 to 27 liter, 10 to 57 liter, 27 liter both years, 27 to 57 liter, or 57 liter both years) the second year when containers were spaced 120 cm on center, Height and caliper were greatest for magnolias grown in 27- or 57-liter containers both years. Caliper was greater for trees shifted from 10-liter containers to the larger container volumes compared to trees grown in 10-liter containers both years, Trees grown in 10-liter containers both years tended to have few roots growing in the outer 4 cm at the eastern, southern, and western exposures in the grow medium, During the second year, high air and growth medium temperatures may have been primary limiting factors to carbon assimilation during June and August. Using large container volumes to increase carbon assimilation and tree growth may be even more important when daily maximum air temperatures are lower during late spring or early fall compared to midsummer.

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Chris A. Martin, Dewayne L Ingram, and Terril A. Nell

Trees were grown for 2 years as a function of three container volumes (10, 27, and 57 liter) the first year and six shifting treatments (10 liter both years, 10 to 27 liter, 10 to 57 liter, 27 liter both years, 27 to 57 liter, or 57 liter both years) the second year when containers were spaced 120 cm on center, Height and caliper were greatest for magnolias grown in 27- or 57-liter containers both years. Caliper was greater for trees shifted from 10-liter containers to the larger container volumes compared to trees grown in 10-liter containers both years, Trees grown in 10-liter containers both years tended to have few roots growing in the outer 4 cm at the eastern, southern, and western exposures in the grow medium, During the second year, high air and growth medium temperatures may have been primary limiting factors to carbon assimilation during June and August. Using large container volumes to increase carbon assimilation and tree growth may be even more important when daily maximum air temperatures are lower during late spring or early fall compared to midsummer.

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Jeremy R. Pinto, Rhiannon A. Chandler, and R. Kasten Dumroese

container size on the morphological and nitrogen characteristics of coneflower seedlings (93 d after sowing; n = 45). Regardless of irrigation, overall trends showed coneflower seedlings increased in size with increasing container volume. Container