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Tongyin Li and Guihong Bi

., 2014 ). Blueberries have soil pH requirement of 4.5 to 5.5 ( Retamales and Hancock, 2012 ). Container production of blueberry offers the advantage of not being limited by suboptimal soil conditions in the open field and the ability to control substrate

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Donita L. Bryan, Michael A. Arnold, Astrid Volder, W. Todd Watson, Leonardo Lombardini, John J. Sloan, Luis A. Valdez-Aguilar, and Andrew D. Cartmill

Landscape trees are increasingly being produced using container nursery systems in comparison with traditional field production practices ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ). In contrast to traditional field production, container production

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Kirk W. Pomper, Desmond R. Layne, and Snake C. Jones

Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is a native North American tree that has potential as a new fruit crop or for use in landscapes, but until recently, little information has been available to nurseries on containerized production of this species. Pawpaw seedlings develop a strong taproot with a fragile root system, which can be easily damaged upon digging; therefore, most nurseries propagate trees in containers. Pawpaw seed requires stratification for optimal germination and seed is sensitive to desiccation. The seed also cannot tolerate freezing temperatures [<-15 °C (5.0 °F)]. A well-aerated potting substrate with a high sphagnum peat moss component (>75% by volume), cation exchange capacity, and water holding capacity can be used effectively in container production. Tall containers should be used to accommodate the developing taproot of seedlings. The slow-release fertilizer Osmocote 14-14-14 (14N-6.1P-11.6K) incorporated into Pro-Mix BX potting substrate can be used effectively as the sole fertilizer source at a treatment rate of 2.22 kg·m-3 (3.742 lb/yard3) in containerized pawpaw production. It can also be used at a lower rate of 0.81 kg·m-3 (1.365 lb/yard3) when supplemented with weekly applications of 500 mg·L-1 (ppm) of Peters 20-20-20 (20N-8.78P-16.6K) liquid-feed fertilizer. Bottom heating [32 °C (89.6 °F)] of container-grown pawpaw seedlings results in greater lateral and total root dry weight than in seedlings grown at ambient temperature [24 °C (75.2 °F)], which could increase the rate of establishment of seedlings in the field. Bottom heating of container-grown pawpaw seedlings could decrease both the time to produce a saleable plant and the cost of heating greenhouses. Growth of containerized pawpaw seedlings is enhanced by low to moderate shading with polypropylene shade fabric (28% or 51%) outdoors and low shading (33%) in the greenhouse, in a manner typical of that reported for other shade-preferring plants. Low to moderate shading of pawpaw seedlings grown outdoors greatly increases leaf number, total leaf area, and total plant dry weight compared to nonshaded seedlings, suggesting that commercial nurseries can improve production of containerized pawpaw seedlings using a shading regime outdoors.

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Paul C. Bartley III, Glenn R. Wehtje, Anna-Marie Murphy, Wheeler G. Foshee III, and Charles H. Gilliam

Weeds are plants that compete with a crop for essential components for crop growth and development [i.e., light, water, space, or nutrients ( Neal, 1999 )]. These components are critical in container production because of the limited amount of space

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S. Christopher Marble, Stephen A. Prior, G. Brett Runion, H. Allen Torbert, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, Jeff L. Sibley, and Patricia R. Knight

emissions in specialty crop industries such as horticulture. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of fertilizer placement on CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions from container production of a woody nursery crop. Materials and

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Erin J. Yafuso and Paul R. Fisher

., 2007 ). In the Zheng et al. (2007) study, plant growth decreased and roots appeared stunted and thick when DO was further increased to ≈40 mg·L −1 . Although reports on oxygen injecting technology of irrigation water in propagation or container

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J. Roger Harris and Susan D. Day

waterlogged and therefore not likely to be suffering from chronic low soil oxygen concentrations. In contrast, deep roots of newly planted trees during container production may be exposed to waterlogged conditions because the lower sections of containers

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Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, David R. Bryla, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Richard P. Regan

; Koniarski and Matysiak, 2013 ; Welsh and Zajicek, 1993 ). However, water limitations during container production may negatively influence nutrient reserves in the plants, which are essential for subsequent plant performance in the landscape ( Cabrera and

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Patrick H. Kingston, Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine Strik

higher pH (5.6–6.9; Evans et al., 1996 ) than peat, it has been shown to be suitable for container production of ericaceous plants. Scagel (2003) reported improved growth in a wide range of ericaceous species when the plants were grown in media with

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Richard P. Regan

Applying only the amount of water needed by a plant, when it needs it, is a simple concept that can conserve water and reduce runoff. Simple, that is, when managing a single crop that covers an extensive area under several irrigation zones. Container production nurseries grow a large number of plants and each irrigation zone usually has a diverse grouping of taxa in various stages of development. In 1989, a nursery crop project at Oregon State University began to investigate irrigation scheduling for container-grown woody landscape plants. Crop coefficients (kc), used to adjust irrigation to specific production practices and crop characteristics, vary greatly for woody landscape plants. Woody plant kc values range from <1.0 to >5.0 during the production cycle. Plant taxa, growth stage, spacing, and pruning significantly influence kc of container-grown plants. Ilex crenata `Green Island' showed a reduction in water use (40%) immediately after pruning, but had similar kc values 60 days later. Grouping plants with similar kc values under the same irrigation zone is a very difficult task for a production nursery. It might be more practical to schedule irrigation for daily evapotranspiration, avoid placing new plantings next to mature crops, and only separate-out plants with very high or very low crop water requirements.