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M. Gabriela Buamscha, James E. Altland, Dan M. Sullivan, Donald A. Horneck, and James Cassidy

this study were: 1) to document baseline chemical and physical properties of DFB that have relevance to production of container plants; 2) to determine the effect of age on DFB chemical and physical properties; and 3) to document the consistency of

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Tom Yeager and Geri Cashion

Container plant runoff NO3-N levels varied with sampling time and were periodically higher than the 10-ppm federal drinking water standard during 4.5 months following fertilizer application, even though controlled-release fertilizers Nutricote 18N-2.6P-6.6K Osmocote 18N-2.6P-10K, Prokote 20N-1.3P-8.3K, and Woodace 19N-2.6P-10K were used. Leachate collected from containers had a higher NO3-N level than runoff regardless of sampling time. Leachate NO3-N ranged from 278 ppm for Nutricote 3.5 months after application to 6 ppm for Prokote 1 week after application.

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Kyle P. Lewis* and Jack W. Buxton

Maintaining adequate water for container plants in outdoor sales areas is difficult during the late spring and summer. In mass marketing areas employees are uninformed about the water requirements of plants under various environmental conditions. Plants often are severely stressed and over all quality reduced. A system was developed to automatically irrigate container plants in an outdoor sales area. The system is a modification of the Controlled Water Table (CWT) irrigation system developed at the Univ. of Kentucky (U.K.). The sales area consisted of 2 shelves each 2.44 m long and 0.28 m wide. A trough was constructed from a 5-cm diameter pipe with a 1/4 slot; it was attached to the back side of the shelf. One side of a capillary mat, placed on the shelves, was suspended in the trough containing water. Two systems were used to maintain the level of water in the trough. One was a small float valve installed in a 10-cm PVC pipe which was attached to the 5-cm PVC pipe. The float was adjusted to maintain the water in the trough 2 cm below the top of the shelf. The water reservoir consisted of a 20-cm diameter PVC pipe, 1.22 m long that held 70 L of water. A second system maintained a constant water level in the trough using Torricellian tube principle. The water reservoir was the same as above except it was tightly sealed so no air could leak from the system. The water table was maintained 2 cm below the bench surface by rotating a hole in small cap. A variety of plants in containers, ranging from 10 cm to 5 L pots were maintained without water stress, in a greenhouse environment as well in an outdoor environment for several weeks.

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Amanda Bayer, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

More efficient irrigation management has become a focus in sustainable container plant production ( Chappell et al., 2013a ) to improve resource use and to mitigate the environmental impact of fertilizers and pesticides found in nursery effluent

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Amanda Bayer, John Ruter, and Marc W. van Iersel

Improving water and nutrient management in container plant production will help the nursery industry adapt to decreasing water resources and comply with the growing number of laws and regulations regarding nursery water use, fertilizer applications

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Thomas H. Yeager, Joseph K. von Merveldt, and Claudia A. Larsen

environment. The literature regarding ornamental plant responses to reclaimed water is mostly about evaluations of plants grown in landscapes rather than commercial container plant production. Southern Indian hybrid azaleas ( Rhododendron L. spp.) irrigated

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Ursula K. Schuch, Jack J. Kelly, and Trent Teegerstrom

Container plants, especially those in 1-gal or smaller containers, are a perishable commodity when on display in the retail nursery. From the time of delivery by the wholesaler until purchased by customers, plants need to be maintained in good

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Rico A. González, Daniel K. Struve, and Larry C. Brown

An irrigation control system has been developed and used to estimate evapotranspiration of contamer-grown plants by monitoring randomly selected plants within a container block and watering on an “as needed” basis. Sensor reliability and operational ease allows application of the system in a wide variety of field conditions. First-year tests, using red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings, showed a reduction of 95% or better in both total irrigation and leachate rates with the computer-controlled treatment relative to a manually controlled, drip irrigation treatment without reducing plant growth.

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James L. Green

Since initiation of the research in 1990, diverse plants (92 genera from 47 families) have been grown in the closed, insulated pallet system (CIPS). Greater growth has occurred in various embodiments of the CIPS than in the open container system (OCS) controls. Branching of roots, and of shoots of some plants, is greater in CIPS. CIPS is a closed system; there is no circulation of irrigation solutions nor effluent discharge from CIPS. Water and fertilizer movement in CIPS is plant-driven, and use is 10% of that applied in overhead sprinkler fertigation of open containers. Tomato plants are more tolerant of saline irrigation water, and greenhouse tomato production is more profitable in CIPS than in the OCS. CIPS provides several pest management alternatives.

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P.B. Goodwin and S. Beach

Ronstar® and Rout® are two of the most common and effective preemergent herbicides used by the nursery industry. However, there is some uncertainty as to what happens to the chemicals in nurseries that are recycling their runoff water. The fate of the chemicals has been studied in two nurseries that are completely dependent on recycled water. Negligible amounts were found in the recycled irrigation water. Most of each herbicide remained where it was applied, either close to the top in the substrate, or on the surface of the growing area, for periods of ≈4 months. Five months after application, <10% of oryzalin remained vs. ≈30% of the oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon. Less residue was produced if oxadiazon was applied when the pots were packed together after potting up, compared to application to spaced pots in the standing area. These herbicides are of low mammalian toxicity, and the main hazard is from contamination on the standing area after application, and from the top layer of substrate. To minimize any risk, we recommend that the herbicides be applied before the plants are spaced out on the growing area, and that staff handling the pots take suitable precautions, and in particular avoid inserting their unprotected hands into the top of the mix. Chemical names used: 2-tert-butyl-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-Δ2-1,3,4-oxadiazolin-5-one (oxadiazon); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5,-dinitrobenzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trichloromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); tritium-labelled [N-(4-chloro-2-fluoro-S-(propargyloxy)-phenyl]-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalimide [3H]THP.