content and similar yields to Beauregard ( La Bonte et al., 2008 ). A second objective of this research was to compare chemical and physical properties (color, texture, DM, and sugar content) and consumer acceptability of ‘Evangeline’ and ‘Covington
Susan L. Barkley, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, Suzanne D. Johanningsmeier, Katherine M. Jennings, Van-Den Truong and David W. Monks
Angela D. Myracle, Zakkary J. Castonguay, Amber Elwell and Renae E. Moran
this research were to determine if the partially ripe stage of maturity is as acceptable as the tree-ripe stage of maturity in several asian plum cultivars and to determine the consumer acceptability of three plum types that possess cold hardiness in U
Gregory M. Peck, Preston K. Andrews, John P. Reganold and John K. Fellman
Located on a 20-ha commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchard in the Yakima Valley, Washington, a 1.7-ha study area was planted with apple trees in 1994 in a randomized complete block design with four replications of three treatments: organic (ORG), conventional (CON), and integrated (INT). Soil classification, rootstock, cultivar, plant age, and all other conditions except management were the same on all plots. In years 9 (2002) and 10 (2003) of this study, we compared the orchard productivity and fruit quality of `Galaxy Gala' apples. Measurements of crop yield, yield efficiency, crop load, average fruit weight, tree growth, color grades, and weight distributions of marketable fruit, percentages of unmarketable fruit, classifications of unmarketable fruit, as well as leaf, fruit, and soil mineral concentrations, were used to evaluate orchard productivity. Apple fruit quality was assessed at harvest and after refrigerated (0 to 1 °C) storage for three months in regular atmosphere (ambient oxygen levels) and for three and six months in controlled atmosphere (1.5% to 2% oxygen). Fruit internal ethylene concentrations and evolution, fruit respiration, flesh firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), purgeable volatile production, sensory panels, and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate fruit quality. ORG crop yields were two-thirds of the CON and about half of the INT yields in 2002, but about one-third greater than either system in 2003. High ORG yields in 2003 resulted in smaller ORG fruit. Inconsistent ORG yields were probably the result of several factors, including unsatisfactory crop load management, higher pest and weed pressures, lower leaf and fruit tissue nitrogen, and deficient leaf tissue zinc concentrations. Despite production difficulties, ORG apples had 6 to 10 N higher flesh firmness than CON, and 4 to 7 N higher than INT apples, for similar-sized fruit. Consumer panels tended to rate ORG and INT apples to have equal or better overall acceptability, firmness, and texture than CON apples. Neither laboratory measurements nor sensory evaluations detected differences in SSC, TA, or the SSC to TA ratio. Consumers were unable to discern the higher concentrations of flavor volatiles found in CON apples. For a 200 g fruit, ORG apples contained 10% to 15% more TAA than CON apples and 8% to 25% more TAA than INT apples. Across most parameters measured in this study, the CON and INT farm management systems were more similar to each other than either was to the ORG system. The production challenges associated with low-input organic apple farming systems are discussed. Despite limited technologies and products for organic apple production, the ORG apples in our study showed improvements in some fruit quality attributes that could aid their marketability.
Valeria Sigal Escalada and Douglas D. Archbold
by their low aroma volatile production ( Marin et al., 2009 ). Because AVG plus 1-MCP repressed IEC and TVP the most, including key ‘Gala’ aroma volatiles, the treatment would negatively affect consumer acceptability. A longer period at 21 °C
Edward F. Durner, Dean F. Polk and Joseph C. Goffreda
An untrained panel evaluated five apple cultivars [Malus domestica Borkh. cvs. Liberty, Prima, Priscilla, and Freedom (all scab resistant) and Spur Red Delicious (Bisbee strain)] in 1988 and 1989 to determine consumer acceptability and opinion of quality. Testers evaluated fruit for five quality characteristics (texture, juiciness, aroma, tartness, and sweetness) plus overall quality in a random, blind taste test on 30 Sept. 1988. Testers consistently identified `Spur Red Delicious' (9% soluble solids content) as undesirable for all attributes. Tasters could not discern differences in juiciness among the cultivars. `Freedom' was rated excellent, `Liberty' and `Prima' very good to good, and `Priscilla' good in overall quality. In a separate blind, random preference test, `Freedom', `Liberty', and `Prima' received higher preference ratings than `Priscilla'. The taste tests were repeated using the same five cultivars on 3 Oct. 1989. `Freedom' and `Liberty' received the highest ratings for overall quality. Freedom received the highest preference ratings. Results, in general, were consistent from year to year. Since we tested only one strain of `Red Delicious', we cannot conclude from this work that resistant cultivars are preferred to any standard; however, we can conclude that resistant cultivars are acceptable to the consumer.
T.M. Work, R.W. Work, A.A. Bushway and J.R. Schupp
Increased consumer awareness of pesticide usage in fruit production and demand for reduced pesticide residue on produce are major incentives to investigate the integration of disease-resistant apple cultivars into commercial fruit production. Appearance, flavor, and texture are key attributes in determining consumer acceptance of these new cultivars. The objectives of this study were to examine the physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of five DRCs, `Liberty', `McShay', `NY 75414-1', `NY 74828-12', and `NY 65707-19', at harvest and following commercial storage. Consumer panels were asked to indicate their opinion of appearance, flavor, and overall attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Firmness, sweetness, and tartness were measured using a 5-point “just right” scale. Sugars, Hunter color, pH, titratable acidity, texture, Brix, and browning were determined. Statistical analysis of the parametric and nonparametric data were performed using SAS. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were seen in titratable acidity, Brix, Hunter color, and texture. `Liberty' and `NY 65707-19' received significantly (P < 0.05) higher liking scores for overall appearance. Firmness, sweetness, and tartness liking scores decreased over storage. However, `Liberty' and `NY 75414-1' maintained acceptable scores for these attributes. `NY 74828-12' was found significantly lower in degree of browning. Based upon the performance of these cultivars, `NY 75414-1' and `Liberty' have the greatest potential for fresh-market consumer acceptability and `NY 74828-12” may serve as a good processing cultivar due to reduced browning.
Dirk Vuylsteke, Rony Swennen and Rodomiro Ortiz
Oragwa for technical assistance in embryo culture and Gillian Eggleston and Mike Ogburia for undertaking the preliminary consumer acceptability studies. We acknowledge the International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain for making
Susan B. Templeton, Martha Marlette, Kirk W. Pomper and Snake C. Jones
Marketed as a fresh fruit, the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) has a short shelf life, only 2-3 days at room temperature and up to 3 weeks with refrigeration. There is commercial processing potential for pawpaw pulp in juices, ice cream, yogurt, baked goods, and other products. Consumer acceptability of such products needs to be investigated. One hundred and five attendees of the 2nd Annual Pawpaw Field Day at Kentucky State University (KSU), Frankfort, Ky., participated in a tasting of pawpaw products; 56% of tasters were male; 76% were over 40 years of age; 72% of tasters had eaten pawpaw previously. Each item was rated on a scale from 1 = liked it extremely to 7 = disliked it extremely. Pawpaw ice cream was the best-received item (55% of tasters liked it extremely), followed by pawpaw cake with lemon icing, liked extremely by 45%. The pawpaw/grape juice drink was liked extremely by 31% of participants. Three alternative recipes for pawpaw butter were presented; the plain pawpaw butter was liked extremely by 26% of tasters; pawpaw butter prepared with lemon and grape juice was liked extremely by 11%, while the version prepared with orange and lemon was liked extremely by only 8%. Two versions of pawpaw custard were presented. The custard prepared from ripe, mild-fl avored fruit was liked extremely by 42% of tasters, while the custard prepared from mixed under-ripe, over-ripe and bruised fruit was liked extremely by only 16%. Ratings by persons unfamiliar with pawpaw fl avor were significantly lower (P < 0.05) only for the two pawpaw custards; tasters age 40 years or younger gave significantly higher ratings for pawpaw ice cream (P < 0.05) and significantly lower ratings for both pawpaw custards (select, P < 0.05 and mix, P < 0.01) and the pawpaw/grape juice drink (P < 0.05).
John C. Beaulieu and Jeanne M. Lea
Cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naudin) were evaluated during development and then fresh-cut cubes were stored after preparation from various maturities to track quality changes during storage. Flowers were anthesis tagged one morning in two seasons (years) and developing fruit were harvested weekly at 13, 20, 27 to 28, and 34 to 35 days after anthesis (DAA). Mature fruit were harvested at 37 to 38 DAA with five distinct maturities: 1/4-, 1/2-, 3/4-slip, full-slip (FS), and overripe (OR). Hunter L* and a* color values indicated a change from pale green to light orange that occurred 28 DAA. There were significant decreases in L*, a*, and b* by day 9 in storage (4 °C) as fresh-cut cubes. After 28 DAA, sucrose dramatically increased, and this was positively correlated with increases in both total sugars (r = 0.882, P = 0.084) and percent soluble solids concentration (r = 0.939, P = 0.041). Gradual deterioration occurred during storage, as determined by a uniform subjective quality criterion, which was independent of maturity. There was a negative linear trend in hand-held and instrumental firmness over the length of storage for each maturity level, and the slopes decreased significantly with increasing maturity, indicating the effect of storage duration decreased as harvest maturity increased. There was a significant increasing trend in vitamin C (P = 0.042) during development from 12 through 35 DAA, then losses were greater in fresh-cut cubes prepared from full-slip fruit (65%) than less-mature fruit: 3/4-slip, 50%; 1/2-slip, 48%; 1/4-slip, 40%. The pH of mesocarp tissue dropped to the lowest value (5.25) just before physiological maturity at 27 to 28 DAA, then peaked after harvest (6.51–6.79), and declined somewhat by the end of storage as fresh-cut cubes. In sum, muskmelon fruit used to produce fresh-cut cubes should be harvested ≥1/2-slip to attain optimum physiological quality and consumer acceptability.
Craig A. Ledbetter
berries with full color development on spur-pruned vines without any applications of plant growth regulators. Berry taste is sweet and neutral with flesh texture playing an important role in consumer acceptability. Origin ‘Solbrio’ originated from a