During storage, many apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) genotypes lose their desirable textural qualities, but some like `Honeycrisp', maintain their sensory Crispness and Firmness. To understand this differential response of genotypes to postharvest changes in texture, reliable and quantifiable methods of texture measurement are needed. This study integrated data from a snapping test, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and sensory panels to study postharvest textural changes and to predict sensory textural attributes of Firmness, Crispness, Mealiness, and Juiciness. Three separate analyses on fresh, stored, and combined fresh and stored fruit data yielded different predictors for the same sensory attributes. Change in Crispness during storage was successfully predicted by change in Work during storage. Cell number and size were related to fresh fruit texture and its maintenance during storage. Unique textural properties of `Honeycrisp' were found to be inherited by its progeny.
Harpartap Mann, David Bedford, James Luby, Zata Vickers, and Cindy Tong
Diego Pozueta-Romero, Pedro Gonzalez, Ed Etxeberria, and Javier Pozueta-Romero
was centrifuged at 13,000 g n for 5 min and the supernatant was collected for analysis. All experiments were carried out in triplicates, and data is presented as the average ± sd . Confocal laser scanning microscopy. A final suspension of
Uday K. Tirlapur, Guglielmo Costa, Carlo Malossini, Giannina Vizzotto, and Mauro Cresti
`Redhaven' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit abscission has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy, computer-assisted video-image analysis, and confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with chlorotetracycline and ethidium bromide as fluorescent probes for membrane Ca2+ and nuclear DNA. This enabled us to document the morphological changes of the cells, distribution patterns of membrane Ca2+ in the constituent cells of the abscission zone, and the nuclear morphology with accompanying changes in nuclear DNA. The digitized images of CTC-fluorescence emissions revealed that the membrane Ca2+ levels in the pre-abscission zone (control) is uniform and similar to that present in the cells of the spongy proximal region of the peduncle and that of the fruit parenchyma. However, with the induction of abscission, 2 days after embryoctomy, there was a significant increase in membrane Ca2+ in the cells of the abscission zone compared to the neighboring cells of the fruit and the peduncle. Thereafter, with the gradual separation of the cells and the concomitant vacuolation, the membrane Ca2+ level decreased substantially. Confocal imaging of EB labeled cells of the abscission zone before induction invariably revealed a well-organized nucleus. However, during cell separation, significant changes in the cellular and nuclear morphology occured, including 1) rounding of cells, 2) reduction in the nuclear volume, and 3) concomitant fragmentation of nuclear DNA. The possible role of Ca2+ during the process of peach fruit abscission and nuclear DNA fragmentation leading to cell death is discussed. Chemical names used: chlorotetracycline (CTC), ethidium bromide (EB).
Mercy A. Olmstead, N. Suzanne Lang, Gregory A. Lang, Frank W. Ewers, and Shirley A. Owens
Dye transport through vascular pathways was examined in tissues surrounding the graft union of second-leaf, field-grown trees of `Lapins'/Gisela 5 (`Gi 5') (dwarfing) and `Lapins'/'Colt' (nondwarfing). Excavated, intact trees were allowed to take up xylemmobile dye via transpiration for 6 h before sectioning the tree into scion, graft union, and rootstock tissue. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a significantly larger stem cross-sectional area in the central graft union than did `Lapins'/'Colt'. Per unit cross section, dye transport of both `Lapins'/'Gi 5' and `Lapins'/'Colt' was significantly less in the graft union than in rootstock sections, with still less transported to scion tissues in `Lapins'/'Gi 5'. `Lapins'/'Gi 5' had a tendency to produce vascular elements oriented obliquely to the longitudinal axis of the tree. Dye was distributed more uniformly axially and radially across the graft union in `Lapins'/'Colt' than in `Lapins'/'Gi 5', with an apparent accumulation of dye in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' graft union. Xylem vessel diameters and vessel hydraulic diameters (VDh) were smaller overall in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' than in `Lapins'/'Colt'; however, graft unions in both had smaller VDh than did rootstock sections. These observations suggest reduced transport efficiency of xylem vessels in the graft union in `Lapins'/'Gi 5' may be due to smaller vessels, vascular abnormalities and/or increased amounts of callus and parenchyma tissue.
Bhaskar Bondada and Markus Keller
assessed first by staining cut surfaces of berries with 5,(6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (5,6-CFDA SE) and then observing stained berries with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Stock 5,6-CFDA SE was made up as follows: 1 mL of dimethyl sulphoxide
Ed Etxeberria, Pedro Gonzalez, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Parvesh Sharma, and Pu Chun Ke
-exclusion chromatography J. Chromatography 708 263 271 Yang, D. Moran-Mirabal, J.M. Parlenge, J.Y. Walker, L.P. 2013 Investigations of the porous structure of cellulosic substrates through confocal laser scanning microscopy Biotechnol. Bioeng. 110 2836 2845 Zhang, Q
Yuliya A. Salanenka and Alan G. Taylor
solubility and permeability in drug discovery and development settings Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 23 3 25 Liu, Z.Q. Gaskin, R.E. 2004 Visualization of uptake of two model xenobiotics into bean leaves by confocal laser scanning microscopy: diffusion pathways and
Lili Dong, Tongrui Liu, Di Gao, Jing Li, and Jie Qian
tumefaciens containing 35S::PhSDG8-GFP was injected into the abaxial side of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves (2 weeks old). After culturing at 25 °C for 48 h, the fluorescence was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (FV1200; Olympus, Tokyo, Japan
Chao Gao, Rui Yang, and Deyi Yuan
/clearing combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). After collecting the pistils from the tree, the ovules were removed under an anatomical microscope and fixed immediately in fixative [95% ethanol:glacial acetic acid (v/v) 3:1] for 6 h. The material
; the phloem is located toward the abaxial side (outside) and the xylem is located toward the adaxial side (inside) and forms a ring-like pattern around a parenchymatous pith cells; ( C ) confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) image of SOUR shrivel