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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Efficient carbon distribution and utilization may enhance drought survival and recovery ability for perennial grasses. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation patterns in shoots and roots of colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris L.), creeping bentgrass (A. stolonifera L.), and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.) in response to drought and re-watering following drought, and to determine whether species variation in drought tolerance and recuperative potential is related to differences in the patterns of carbon partitioning and accumulation. The experiment consisted of three treatments: 1) well-watered control; 2) drought, irrigation completely withheld for 18 days; and 3) drought recovery, a group of drought-stressed plants were re-watered at the end of the drought treatment (18 days). Drought tolerance and recuperative ability of three species was evaluated by measuring turf quality and leaf relative water content. These parameters indicated that velvet bentgrass was most drought tolerant while colonial bentgrass had highest recuperative ability among the three species. Plants were labeled with 14CO2 to determine carbon partitioning to shoots and roots. Carbohydrate accumulation was assessed by total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) content. The proportion of newly photosynthesized 14C partitioned to roots increased at 12 days of drought compared to the pre-stress level, to a greater extent for velvet bentgrass (45%) than for colonial bentgrass (35%) and creeping bentgrass (30%). In general, the proportion of 14C was highest in roots, intermediate in stems, and lowest in leaves at 12 days of drought treatment for all three bentgrass species. As drought duration and severity increased (18 days), 14C partitioning increased more in leaves and stems relative to that in roots for all three species. Stem TNC content was significantly greater for drought-stressed plants of colonial bentgrass and velvet bentgrass compared to their respective well-watered control plants, whereas no differences in stem TNC content were observed between drought-stressed and well-watered creeping bentgrass. Our results suggest that increased carbon partitioning to roots during initial drought stress represented an adaptive response of bentgrass species to short-term drought stress, and increased carbon partitioning and carbohydrate accumulation in stems during prolonged period of drought stress could be beneficial for rapid recovery of turf growth and water status upon re-watering.

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Kari L. Hugie and Eric Watkins

colonial bentgrass ( A. tenuis Sibth.), ‘Reton’ redtop ( Agrostis alba L. Reton), and ‘Covar’ common sheep fescue ( Festuca ovina L.). In a separate multistate trial in the NCR, Watkins et al. (2011) found that under low-input management (no

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Glenn A. Hardebeck, Ronald F. Turco, Richard Latin, and Zachary J. Reicher

Pseudomonas aureofaciens strain Tx-1 is suggested as a biological control for Sclerotinia homoeocarpa (F.T. Bennett) and brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn) on golf courses. To overcome application difficulties, a field bioreactor is used to grow Tx-1 daily and then inject into nightly irrigation on the golf course. Though Tx-1 shows some promise for disease control in vitro, it is relatively untested under field conditions. We conducted three field experiments to 1) evaluate the efficacy Tx-1 when applied through an irrigation system for the control of dollar spot and brown patch; 2) determine if there is an interaction between nitrogen fertility or fungicides on efficacy of Tx-1; and 3) determine if Tx-1 can extend the duration of dollar spot control by a single application of fungicide. Nightly applications of Tx-1 through irrigation did not affect brown patch on `Astoria' colonial bentgrass (Agrostis capillaris Sibth.) during the 2 years of our study. Tx-1 reduced dollar spot in `Crenshaw' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) by 37% in 1998 compared to non-Tx-1 treatments, but Tx-1 had no effect on dollar spot in 1999. Under low disease pressure, Tx-1 increased the dollar spot control of fungicides by 32% and increased the duration of control by 2.6 days. However, Tx-1 had no effect on fungicide efficacy or duration of control later in the summer when dollar spot pressure was high. Fungicides did not negatively affect Tx-1's control of brown patch or dollar spot, nor did fertilizer regime affect brown patch or dollar spot control by Tx-1. Although delivery of Tx-1 in our studies was optimized, disease control was marginal and occurred only under low disease pressure. Therefore, we conclude Tx-1 has limited practical value for turfgrass disease control on golf courses.

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

accumulation under drought stress and recovery from drought stress. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. Sods of ‘Tiger II’ colonial bentgrass, ‘L-93’ creeping bentgrass, and ‘Greenwich’ velvet bentgrass were collected

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Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

found that velvet bentgrass is more tolerant to drought stress than creeping bentgrass or colonial bentgrass as exhibited by higher turfgrass quality, leaf water content, and osmotic adjustment under drought stress ( DaCosta and Huang, 2006a , 2006b

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Eric Watkins, Andrew B. Hollman, and Brian P. Horgan

research on low-input turfgrasses has focused on high-cut turf ( Diesburg et al., 1997 ; Mintenko et al., 2002 ; Watkins et al., 2008 ). Horgan et al. (2007) evaluated fine fescue and colonial bentgrass mixtures for low-input fairways and suggested that

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Michel R. Wiman, Elizabeth M. Kirby, David M. Granatstein, and Thomas P. Sullivan

colonial bentgrass]}; 5) living mulch nonlegume [LMNL (mix of sweet alyssum, creeping thyme, fivespot, and colonial bentgrass)]; 6) the “sandwich” system legume [SWL (a 1.75-ft tilled strip on each side of the tree line and a 1.5-ft strip of living mulch in

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J. Scott Ebdon and Michelle DaCosta

Golf greens and fairways planted to creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ), colonial bentgrass ( A. capillaris ), and velvet bentgrass ( A. canina ) require overseeding to reestablishment areas damaged from winter injuries. Cold soil

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Trygve S. Aamlid and Peter J. Landschoot

( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) > perennial ryegrass > fine fescues > creeping bentgrass > Kentucky bluegrass > rough bluegrass ( Poa trivialis L.) > colonial bentgrass ( Turgeon, 2005 ). Although not included in Turgeon's listing, annual bluegrass ( Poa

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Peter J. Landschoot and Charles F. Mancino

This study was conducted to determine: 1) if the Minolta CR-310 Chroma Meter can detect color differences among bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L., A. capillaris L.) cultivars maintained as a turf; 2) how the CR-310 parameters of hue angle, lightness, and chroma compare with visual color assessments; and 3) if the CR-310 can provide consistent color measurements among evaluators. Differences were detected among cultivars with respect to hue angle, lightness, and chroma. Hue angle and chroma were significantly correlated with visual color assessments when data were averaged across all evaluators. Lightness was not strongly associated with visual color assessment. Differences were found among evaluators for visual color assessment, lightness, and chroma, but not for hue angle measurements. Thus, hue angle appears to be the most consistent CR-310 parameter for measuring color of bentgrass turf. These results indicate that the CR-310 can be used to evaluate the color of bentgrass cultivars maintained as a turf and provides consistent hue angle measurements among evaluators, regardless of experience in rating turf color. The CR-310 is probably best used for measuring relative color differences and may be useful if cultivars of similar color are desired in blended turfs.