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Warren Lamboy, Christopher Alpha, Amy Szewc-McFadden, and Sharon Bleik

The cold-hardy Vitis (grape) collection at the USDA/ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit in Geneva, N.Y., comprises ≈1300 accessions. While much of the collection has been evaluated for morphological and viticultural traits, little of it has been well-characterized genetically. Lack of genetic information hampers the identification of accessions, the determination of genetic relationships among them, the evaluation of potential new accessions, and the construction of a core subset of the collection. Because simple sequence repeat DNA polymorphisms (SSRs or microsatellites) have already been proven to be useful genetic markers in Vitis vinifera (non-cold-hardy wine, raisin, and table grapes), our research focuses on the use of the markers both for the identification (“fingerprinting”) of species, hybrids, subspecies, cultivars (varieties), and accessions of cold-hardy Vitis, and for the determination of genetic relationships between these taxa. Our latest research results in this area will be presented.

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Laise S. Moreira and Matthew D. Clark

V. rotundifolia . No cold-hardy grape breeding program (USDA hardiness zone 4) has reported using embryo rescue techniques to advance research in this area. The success rate for embryo rescue through ovule culture in grape is low, but it can vary

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Warren F. Lamboy and Christopher G. Alpha

Curators of plant genetic resources collections must preserve germplasm possessing known useful characteristics as well as material displaying general genetic diversity. In order to ensure that both types of germplasm are included in a collection, germplasm curators require three fundamental types of information about each accession: taxonomic identity, genetic identity, and genetic relationship. Because simple sequence repeat DNA fragments (SSRs) have been successfully used to determine the genetic identity of grape clones, we conducted a study to determine if SSRs would supply all three types of information for the accessions in the cold-hardy Vitis (grape) germplasm collection. SSR fragments were amplified at six different loci for 23 accessions of cold-hardy grape spanning the range of species diversity in the collection. The minimum number of different alleles found at a locus was 9; the maximum was 26. Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.565 and 0.783, while gene diversity values were in the range 0.785 to 0.944. Two hundred fifty-two pairs of plants out of a possible 253 could be distinguished by their SSR profiles. Nei's genetic identities were computed between all pairs of plants and used in a UPGMA cluster analysis. The relationships obtained did not correspond well to expected relationships based on geography and taxonomy. Four species of grapes were represented by two or more accessions in this study. No DNA fragments found at these six loci served to unambiguously distinguish one species from another. Thus, SSR fragments from the six loci studied were useful in determining genetic identity of accessions, but were not helpful in determining genetic relationships or taxonomic identities. We are searching for additional loci that are informative for these types of information. Meanwhile we highly recommend SSRs for determining genetic identity in germplasm resources collections.

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Nagehan D. Köycü, John E. Stenger, and Harlene M. Hatterman-Valenti

Plant Dis. 85 137 140 Hatterman-Valenti, H.M. Auwarter, C.P. Stenger, J.E. 2016 Evaluation of cold-hardy grape cultivars for North Dakota and the North Dakota State University germplasm enhancement project Acta Hort. 1115 13 22 Hemstad, P. Luby, J. 2008

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Chrislyn A. Particka, Eric T. Stafne, and Timothy E. Martinson

Handling nonresponse issues J. Ext. 21 5 45 50 12 June 2018. < https://www.joe.org/joe/1983september/83-5-a7.pdf > Northern Grapes Project 2016 Viticulture, enology, and marketing for cold-hardy grapes. 12 June 2018. < http

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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

not included in evaluations at other sites. The cultivars evaluated in our study included 10 newer cultivars and advanced selections: seven from the University of Minnesota Cold-Hardy Grape Breeding Program (La Crescent, Marquette, MN 1189, MN 1200, MN

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James A. Schrader, Diana R. Cochran, Paul A. Domoto, and Gail R. Nonnecke

wine grapes. 21 Aug. 2019. < www.traveliowa.com/UserDocs/Iowa_2012_EI_Report_Final.pdf > Hatterman-Valenti, H.M. Auwarter, C.P. Stenger, J.E. 2016 Evaluation of cold-hardy grape cultivars for North Dakota and the North Dakota State University germplasm

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Christina M. Bavougian, Paul E. Read, Vicki L. Schlegel, and Kathryn J. Hanford

exposure and winemaking processes on monoterpenes and wine olfactory evaluation of Golden Muscat Amer. J. Enol. Viticult. 44 198 204 Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station 2008 Cold Hardy Grapes: Frontenac Viticulture. 11 June 2012. < http

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer, Stan Hokanson, Susan Galatowitsch, and James Luby

< http://www.apples.umn.edu/posters.html >. University of Minnesota 2009c Cold hardy grapes 12 Dec. 2009 < http://www.grapes.umn.edu/ >. University of Minnesota 2009d Grape posters 12 Dec. 2009 < http://www.grapes.umn.edu/order-form.pdf >. Wagner, W