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Chunyu Zhang, Xuesen Chen, Hongwei Song, Yinghai Liang, Chenhui Zhao and Honglian Li

Field Genebank for Hardy Fruits, Gongzhuling, China, was established at Jilin Province ( Zhang et al., 2003 ). Phenotypic properties, biologic characteristics, cold resistance, disease resistance, and fruit quality have been described and evaluated in

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Majken Pagter, Karen K. Petersen, Fulai Liu and Christian R. Jensen

, reduced leaf water content in cyclic water-deficit plants may be advantageous in terms of cold resistance. Leaf ψ s and ψ p tended to decrease and increase, respectively, in continuous water-deficit plants compared with control plants, indicating that

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Delmer O. Ketchie and R. Kammereck

Samples of current season shoots of Anjou, Bartlett and Bosc pears were collected throughout the year during 1990, `91 and `92. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vital staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) were used at the sampling times to determine freeze resistance. Freezing tests were conducted on greenhouse-grown trees. Temperatures to freeze the trees were predetermined by DTA. After freezing TTC staining, acid fuchsin test and growth were used to determine survival. All three varieties began to acclimate after terminal growth ceased in late June until October. Bartlett and Anjou obtained about -25°C resistance by this time and Bose about -23°C. After frost began, Anjou and Bartlett gained an additional resistance to -33°C and Bose to -28°C. Trees frozen artificially at -27°C had limited growth but did leaf out only to die a month later. Trees frozen at -33°C never leafed out Bartlett trees at -27°C looked better than Anjou and Bose trees but died also.

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H.A. Quamme, Wei Ai Su and L.J. Veto

Excision of the flower from the peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] flower bud raised the 50% injury temperature of flowers (cooled at 1C/hour) from -18 and -20C to -10 and -13C on two test dates, 26 Feb. 1988 and 5 Dec. 1990, respectively. Ice inoculation of the excised flowers at -3C further raised the 50% injury temperature to -7 and -8C for the two dates, respectively. These observations suggest that supercooling is a true mechanism for avoiding freezing injury. Low temperature scanning electron microscopy of freeze fractured cells verified that the flower froze intracellularly, whereas the subtending tissue froze extracellularly. Ice inoculation of the flower and the flower bud axis from which the scales were removed demonstrated that a barrier to ice propagation (effective to -11C) from the flower bud axis to the flower was present. This barrier may involve the provascular strands and a cell zone at the flower base (BZ) that were devoid of intercellular spaces. These tissues also had smaller cells, smaller vacuoles, greater ratio of cell wall thickness to cell size than tissue just below the BZ, which may result in greater cell rigidity and restriction of extracellular freezing. The cells outside the provascular strands at the base of the flower were also lacking in intercellular space, were smaller in size, and had a higher ratio of cell wall thickness to cell size compared to cells near the base of the scales. In the intact flower buds in which the flowers supercool below -11C, the presence of the first and second scales was important to full expression of supercooling because their removal raised the supercooling point, whereas the removal of lower scales did not. Sequestration of ice by the first two subtending scales during the early stages of freezing may be important to the creation of a dry region at the flower base that prevents ice propagation into the flower at temperatures below -11C.

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R. Provvidenti

Seedlings of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai] are commonly affected by a partial chlorophyll deficiency that is activated by low temperatures (<20C), causing foliar symptoms and growth retardation. Cotyledons appear whitish-green, whereas the first leaves display a mosaic-like variegation consisting of scattered white flecks and patches. While this disorder is common in commercial watermelon cultivars, some land races from Zimbabwe appeared to be unaffected. From cross and backcross populations of the cold-sensitive cultivar New Hampshire Midget with the cold-resistant line PP261-1 (from PI 482261), the leaf variegation was determined to be conferred by a single recessive gene. The symbol slv (seedling leaf variegation) is assigned to this factor. The dominant allele at this same locus can be exploited for the development of new “cold-resistant” cultivars and F1 hybrids, thus providing economic gain due to earlier planting.

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C.L. Haynes, O.M. Lindstrom and M.A. Dirr

Cooling treatments of 2, 4, and 6C/hour or warming at 25, 4, or 0C influenced the cold hardiness estimates of x Cupressocyparis leylandii (A.B. Jacks. and Dallim.) Dallim. and A.B. Jacks. (Leyland cypress), Lagerstroemia indica L. (crape myrtle), and Photinia ×fraseri Dress `Birmingham' (redtip photinia) at four times during the year. New growth from all taxa, especially spring growth, was injured or killed at higher temperatures by the fastest cooling rate and/or by warming at 25C. Cold hardiness of Leyland cypress was unaffected by the cooling and warming treatments. Crape myrtle had a significantly higher lowest survival temperature (LST) when warmed at 25C than at 4 or 0C. Photinia leaves and stems cooled at 6C/hour or warmed at 25C generally resulted in a higher LST than those cooled more slowly or warmed at lower temperatures. Cooling rates of 14C/hour and warming at 0 to 4C should be used in freeze tests with Leyland cypress and crape myrtle. For leaves and stems of photinia, 2C/hour cooling and warming at 0 to 4C should be used.

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Jun Liu, Orville M. Lindstrom and Dario J. Chavez

Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has great potential as a quick and convenient cold hardiness determination method in plants. It measures freezing events inside of plant samples by detecting exotherm(s) produced when water changes from liquid to solid phase. DTA is highly sensitive to the experimental conditions and it has been reported to be ineffective among different fruit crops after acclimation of floral buds has occurred. The objective of this project was to establish DTA as a rapid and accurate method to predict peach floral bud cold hardiness from acclimation to deacclimation as compared with the traditional standard artificial freezing test. Floral buds of ‘Elberta’ and ‘Flavorich’ peach cultivars were subjected to DTA and artificial freezing tests throughout the winters of 2015–16 and 2016–17. Before deacclimation, two distinct exotherms, low-temperature exotherms (LTE) and high-temperature exotherms (HTE), were normally detected from floral bud DTA analyses. After deacclimation, DTA tests yielded only a few LTEs. However, incubation of floral buds at −2 °C overnight before the cooling process of DTA tests yielded an increased number of LTEs for both seasons in comparison with samples directly run using DTA without incubation. Similarly, after deacclimation started, the temperature in which LTE occurred was correlated (r = 0.59–0.86) with LT50 (lethal temperature that damaged 50% of floral buds) when DTA samples were treated overnight at −2 °C. In our study, pretreatment of floral buds at −2 °C overcame the inability of DTA to detect LTEs after deacclimation, which improved the ability and reliability of DTA to detect LTEs for more than 50% of the buds used per date per cultivar. DTA is a promising method to predict cold hardiness of peach plants.

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Elzbieta U. Kozik and Todd C. Wehner

Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is one of the Cucurbitaceae species and subtropical crops that exhibit chilling injury (CI) when exposed to low temperatures. Watermelon seedlings were tested for chilling tolerance using methods modified from cucumber. Three experiments were conducted using different combinations of chilling durations of 6, 12, 24, or 36 hours and chilling temperatures of 2 or 4 °C. Watermelon seedlings were more resistant to low temperatures than cucumber seedlings, so it was necessary to use long chilling durations to induce significant foliar damage. A diverse set of 16 watermelon cultigens was tested: Allsweet, Black Diamond, Chubby Gray, Charlee, Charleston Gray, Dixielee, Golden, Golden Honey, New Winter, NH Midget, Sugar Baby, Sugarlee, Sunshade, PI 189225, PI 244018, and PI 595203. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment with a light intensity of 500 mmol·m−2·s−1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). Optimal conditions for chilling treatment were 36 hours at 4 °C or 24 hours at 2 °C. The most resistant cultigen was PI 244018, and the most susceptible cultigens were NH Midget and Golden.

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Wanmei Jin, Jing Dong, Yuanlei Hu, Zhongping Lin, Xuefeng Xu and Zhenhai Han

faster and more efficient manner. For plant cold resistance improvement, it is known that plant cold resistance depends on multiple gene interactions. A lot of cold-responsive genes contain CCGAC, the core sequence of the DRE/CRT (dehydration