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Yang Yang, Zhongkui Jia, Faju Chen, Ziyang Sang and Luyi Ma

also to the timing and rate of cold acclimation ( Suojala and Lindén, 1997 ). Cold acclimation, the process by which plants transit from a cold-sensitive to cold-hardy state ( Zabadal et al., 2007 ), is essential for the survival of woody plants growing

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Aaron E. Walworth and Ryan M. Warner

brings about an increase in freezing tolerance through a process termed cold acclimation ( Thomashow, 1999 ). Within the family Solanaceae, even within the genus Solanum , species vary considerably in their ability to cold-acclimate. The chilling

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Sandra E. Vega, Jiwan P. Palta and John B. Bamberg

Two major components of frost resistance are freezing tolerance in the nonacclimated state (growing in normal condition) and capacity to cold acclimate (increase in freezing tolerance upon exposure to chilling temperatures). In addition to these two major components, numerous factors contribute to frost survival. Although the rate of cold acclimation and deacclimation have been recognized as important factors contributing to frost survival, very little information about them is available. Our objective was to determine if there is variability in the rate of cold acclimation and deacclimation among tuber-bearing wild potato species: S. acaule Bitter, S. commersonii Dunal, S. megistacrolobum Bitter, S. multidissectum Hawkes, S. polytrichon Rydb., S. sanctae-rosae Hawkes, and S. megistacrolobum subsp. toralapanum (Cárdenas & Hawkes) Giannattasio&Spooner. Relative freezing tolerance of these species was measured after 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of cold acclimation and after 12 and 24 hours deacclimation. Our results showed there were differences in the rates of cold acclimation and deacclimation among these species. With respect to the rate of acclimation we found these species can be divided into four groups: (i) early; (ii) late acclimators; (iii) progressive acclimators, and (iv) nonacclimators. Likewise, a wide range of cold deacclimation behavior was found. Some species showed as low a loss of 20% of their freezing tolerance, others showed as much as >60% loss after 12 hours of deacclimation. Significant deacclimation was observed in all cold acclimating species after 1 day. These results demonstrate that the rates of cold acclimation and deacclimation were not necessarily related to the cold acclimation capacity of a species. Rapid acclimation in response to low temperatures preceding a frost episode and slow deacclimation in response to unseasonably warm daytime temperatures could be advantageous for plants to survive frost events. Thus, in addition to nonacclimated freezing tolerance and acclimation capacity, it would be very desirable to be able to select for rapid acclimation and slow deacclimation abilities. Results demonstrate that variability for these two traits exists in Solanum L. (potato) species.

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Wei Hao, Rajeev Arora, Anand K. Yadav and Nirmal Joshee

biochemical adjustment that protect them from injury when environmental stresses abruptly occur. Cold acclimation (CA) is a phenomenon that occurs when the freezing tolerance of plants increases after exposure to low, nonfreezing temperatures ( Thomashow, 1999

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Babita Thapa, Rajeev Arora, Allen D. Knapp and E. Charles Brummer

as temperatures fall and photoperiod decreases during autumn ( McKenzie et al., 1988 ), and significant advances in understanding the physiological changes that alfalfa undergoes during cold acclimation have been made ( Castonguay et al., 2006

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Tatsiana Espevig, Chenping Xu, Trygve S. Aamlid, Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

acclimation to low temperatures that alter various metabolic processes to physiologically precondition plants for subsequent freezing stress ( Guy, 1999 ; Thomashow, 1999 ). Two consecutive stages of cold acclimation have been suggested in winter cereals and

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang and Lie-Bao Han

undergo cold acclimation in late fall as temperature drop and photoperiod gets shorter. It has been well documented that increased cold acclimation could improve freeze tolerance of plants, including turfgrasses ( Anderson et al., 2003 ). Plants possess

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Rajeev Arora, Michael Wisniewski and Lisa J. Rowland

Seasonal changes in cold tolerance and proteins were studied in the leaves of sibling deciduous and evergreen peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Freezing tolerance [defined as the subzero temperature at which 50% injury occurred (LT50)] was assessed using electrolyte leakage. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Electroblots were probed with anti-dehydrin and anti-19-kD peach bark storage protein (BSP) antibodies. Leaf LT50 decreased successively from -5.8 °C on 18 Aug. to -10.3 °C in the evergreen genotype and from -7.0 °C to -15.0 °C in the deciduous genotype by 14 Oct. Protein profiles and immunoblots indicated the accumulation of a 60- and 30-kD protein during cold acclimation in the leaves of deciduous trees; however, levels of these proteins did not change significantly in the evergreen trees. Immunoblots indicate that the 60-kD protein is a dehydrin-like protein. Gel-electrophoresis and immunoblots also indicated that the 19-kD BSP progressively disappeared from summer through fall in leaves of deciduous peach but accumulated to a high level in bark tissues. A similar inverse relationship was not evident in evergreen peach.

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Erik J. Landry and David J. Wolyn

increase of root:shoot ratio ( Woolley et al., 2002 ), and a reduction in sink capacity ( Thomas and Stoddart, 1980 ) may promote senescence. The initiation of cold acclimation and extent of winterhardiness can also be influenced by the onset of senescence

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Yang Yang, Runfang Zhang, Pingsheng Leng, Zenghui Hu and Man Shen

only to insufficient freezing tolerance, but also to the timing and rate of cold acclimation ( Suojala and Lindén, 1997 ). Cold acclimation, the process by which plants transit from a cold-sensitive to a cold-hardy state, is essential for the survival