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Detlev R. Vogler

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R.S. Balardin and J.D. Kelly

Sixty-two genetically diverse modern and traditional Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivars from Brazil, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, the Netherlands, and the United States, representative of the Andean and Middle American gene pools, were selected to study the interaction with distinct races of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. & Magnus) Lams.-Scrib. Principal component and phenetic analyses were conducted on the disease reaction to inoculation with 34 races of C. lindemuthianum from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. The principal component analysis revealed four clusters in which only one cluster consisted of cultivars from both gene pools. Bean genotypes clustered based on the gene pool origin of the resistance genes present, regardless of the actual gene pool of the host genotype. Middle American genotypes in cluster A carried Andean resistance genes. Further grouping of genotypes based on overall level of resistance within each gene pool was observed. Clusters A and C consisted of the most resistant genotypes from both gene pools. The distribution of genotypes generated by the phenetic analysis, placed the most resistant and susceptible genotypes of the anthracnose differential series at the extremities of the phenogram, providing support for the range in genotypic resistance exhibited by members of the differential series. Races of C. lindemuthianum isolated from Middle American genotypes showed broad virulence on germplasm from both gene pools, whereas races with Andean reaction showed high virulence only on Andean germplasm. The reduced virulence of Andean races on Middle American genotypes suggests selection of virulence factors congruent with diversity in P. vulgaris. In addition, races of C. lindemuthianum formed two clusters corresponding to the Middle American and Andean reaction groups based on the phenetic analysis. In the principal component analysis, most races with the Andean reaction were observed in the clusters C and D, except races 15 and 23 which clustered with Middle American races in cluster B. Only races 38, 39 and 47 from the Dominican Republic showed high similarity in both multivariate analyses and clustered based on geographic origin. Races from other countries showed no geographic effect. The overlapping of specific races, however, with races from different reaction groups might indicate that this group of isolates possesses factors of virulence to both host gene pools. Data based on virulence supports variability in C. lindemuthianum structured with diversity in P. vulgaris.

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Paul D. Curtis, Gwen B. Curtis, and William B. Miller

chemical constituents provided the most important force in plant-animal coevolution during the past 400 million years. Flowering bulbs contain alkaloids and many other compounds that repel herbivores. The biochemical synthesis of these compounds is complex

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Anthony P. Keinath

cucurbit hosts could provide a substrate for production of airborne ascospores capable of disseminating the pathogen ( Schenck, 1968 ). However, how far viable ascospores are capable of traveling has not been determined. Current theory on coevolution of

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Clara E. Trueblood, Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, Joseph C. Neal, and Richard T. Olsen

. Schubert, I. 2003 Coevolution of apomixis and genome size within the genus Hypericum Sex. Plant Reprod. 16 51 58 Olsen, R.T. Ranney, T.G. Werner, D.J. 2006 Fertility and inheritance of variegated

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Thomas E. Marler, Anders J. Lindström, and L. Irene Terry

, P.R. Raven, P.H. 1964 Butterflies and plants: A study in coevolution Evolution 18 586 608 Fisher, J.B. Vovides, A.P. 2004 Mycorrhizae are present in cycad roots Bot. Rev. 70 16 23 Forster, P.I. Machin, P.J. 1994 Cycad host plants for Lilioceris

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Gayle M. Volk and Christopher M. Richards

variation for biotic and abiotic resistance as well as masked genes for improved quality and production. Although crops vary in the extent of domestication that has occurred as a result of selection by or coevolution with humans, there are examples in which

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Yan Li, Peter M. Hirst, Yizhen Wan, Yingjiao Liu, Qian Zhou, Hua Gao, Yunzhong Guo, Zhengyang Zhao, Leicun Wang, and Mingyu Han

. 2000 Biotic interactions: Genomics and co-evolution Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 3 273 277 Richter, T. Ronald, P. 2000 The evolution of disease resistance genes Plant Mol. Biol. 42 195 204 Roberts, J.W. 1924 Morphological characters of Alternaria mali

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

>. Tripp, E.A. McDade, L.A. 2014 Time-calibrated phylogenies of hummingbirds and hummingbird-pollinated plants reject hypothesis of diffuse co-evolution Aliso 31 89 103 Wiering, H. deVlaming, P. 1984 Inheritance and biochemistry of pigments, p. 49–76. In

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Ed Stover, Malli Aradhya, Louise Ferguson, and Carlos H. Crisosto

wasp ( Blastophaga psenes L.), that has co-evolved with the fig. ( Kjellberg et al., 1987 ). An important botanical component of this co-evolution is the protogynous nature of the caprifig, so that female flowers are receptive 6 to 8 weeks before