Agricultura Pesca y Alimentación, 1988 ) led to an increasing demand for ‘Albariño’ grapes and to the substitution of low-quality cultivars and the hybrids they produced (then typical of post-Phylloxera Galicia) by ‘Albariño’. Because no clonal selection had
Susana Boso Alonso, Virginia Alonso-Villaverde Pilar Gago, José L. Santiago, Mariá C. Martínez, and Emilio Rodriguez
A. Belaj, L. Rallo, I. Trujillo, and L. Baldoni
Eight and seven clones, respectively selected within the olive cultivars `Arbequina' and `Manzanilla de Sevilla', were studied by means of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Two clones of `Arbequina', C3 and C12, showed polymorphism with respect to the standard cultivar by means of both markers. In fact, about 33.6% RAPD bands and 9.2% AFLP bands were polymorphic for these clones. This high level of polymorphism and the presence of a high percentage of bands absent in `Arbequina' suggest their possible origin as `Arbequina' seedlings. The dendrogram obtained by both molecular markers also supports the hypothesis of a seedling origin of these clones as they clustered separately from the original cultivar and the rest of monomorphic clones at low values of similarity. Also within the `Manzanilla de Sevilla' group, two clones (31 and 44) showed diversity with respect to the standard cultivar; 4.5% RAPD and 6.3% AFLP markers were polymorphic for these genotypes while all the other clones didn't show any difference with the standard `Manzanilla de Sevilla'. RAPD and AFLP markers effectively revealed intracultivar variability due to gametic or multiple mutational events, while the detection of other kind of differences such as eventual single mutations remains uncertain and requires further investigation.
Jeffrey T. Baker, Marvin L. Baker, D. Ron Earhart, Leonard M. Pike, Kil S. Yoo, and Roger Horns
Eight individual potatoes, exhibiting a wide range of quality characteristics, were cloned at the Texas A&M Vegetable Improvement Center, College Station, Tex., in order to produce a large number of slips for field trials. Leaf photosynthetic light response for six of these clonal selections was determined during a greenhouse experiment conducted at the Texas A&M Univ. Agricultural Research and Extension Center at Overton, Tex. Photosynthesis data were fit to a rectangular hyperbola in order to estimate light saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Amax), quantum efficiency (QE), and dark respiration rate (Rd). Significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) were detected in all three of these parameter estimates among the six clonal selections. Parameter estimates ranged from 23.4 to 28.8 μmol (CO2) m-2·s-1, 0.056 to 0.071 mol (CO2)/mol (photons), and –0.9 to –2.0 μmol (CO2) m-2·s-1 for Amax, QE, and Rd, respectively. However, these differences were not clearly related to quality characteristics determined for these clones in field trials.
Giora Ben-Ari, Iris Biton, Yair Mani, Benjamin Avidan, and Shimon Lavee
intensification and irrigation. Because the fruit of the cv. Souri is highly appreciated by consumers both for its oil and table olives, clonal selection was initiated aiming to identify lines more responsive to intensification imperative for economical reasons
Nuria Pascual-Seva, Alberto San Bautista, Salvador V. López-Galarza, José V. Maroto, and Bernardo Pascual
chemical composition of the tubers was conducted in a seven-year research project ( Pascual et al., 2000b ). A clonal selection was conducted based on the results of this characterization. Using the traits that presented sufficient heritability, a
Steven P. Castagnoli and M. Carmo Vasconcelos
Clonal selection of European winegrapes (Vitis vinifera) allows the exploitation of an important source of genetic diversity. In the 1980s, many `Pinot noir' clones, previously unavailable in the U.S., were imported from France. To provide information on their performance under Oregon soil and climate conditions, 20 `Pinot noir' clones were established in a replicated trial in Alpine, Ore., planted in 1989. In this study, yield components, pruning weight, and juice composition of the 20 clones were measured for the 1995 through 1999 seasons. Skin anthocyanin concentration was measured for the 1996 through 1999 seasons. Clones included in the trial were Colmar (COL) 538, Dijon (DJN) 10/18, DJN 113, DJN 114, DJN 115, DJN 375, DJN 60, Espiguette (ESP) 236, ESP 374, Foundation Plant Services (FPS) 2A, FPS 4, FPS 10, FPS 16, FPS 17, FPS 22, FPS 23, FPS 29, FPS 31, FPS 32, and FPS 33. For all responses except juice pH and skin anthocyanin concentration, there were significant clone by year interactions. COL 538 had the highest 5-year mean yield (2.93 kg/vine); FPS 29 had the lowest (1.21 kg/vine). DJN 10/18, FPS 4, FPS 22, and FPS 31 were among the five highest-yielding clones. Other low-yielding clones included DJN 115, ESP 374, FPS 17, and FPS 23. Pruning weights were generally correlated with yields. COL 538 had the highest 5-year mean pruning weight (0.81 kg/vine) and FPS 17 had the lowest (0.48 kg/vine). Other clones with relatively high pruning weights were FPS 2A, FPS 4, and FPS 22. Other clones with low pruning weights were FPS 23 and FPS 29. FPS 22 and FPS 17 had the highest (1.13 g/berry) and lowest (0.93 g/berry) 5-year mean berry weights, respectively. Clones with 5-year mean cluster weights >100 g included DJN 10/18, ESP 236, and FPS 31. Those with cluster weights <80 g were DJN 115, FPS 17, and FPS 29. FPS 2A had the highest 5-year mean juice soluble solids concentration (SSC) at harvest (23.8%). FPS 10, FPS 29, DJN 113, and DJN 115 also had relatively high SSC. DJN 60 had the lowest 5-year mean SSC at harvest (22.0%). FPS 22, FPS 33, COL 538, and ESP 374 also had relatively low 5-year mean SSC at harvest. DJN 115 had the highest 5-year mean juice pH (3.15). DJN 113, FPS 29, and FPS 10 also had relatively high juice pH. FPS 22 had the lowest 5-year mean juice pH at harvest (2.97), and DJN 10/18, FPS 2A, and FPS 17 also had relatively low pH. Clones with higher SSC and pH generally had lower titratable acidity. FPS 2A had both high SSC and high titratable acidity. FPS 23 and FPS 17 had the highest skin anthocyanin concentration (2.10 and 2.07 mg·g-1 berry, respectively). The range of skin anthocyanin concentration among the other clones was relatively narrow (1.17-1.47 mg·g-1 berry). FPS 2A, FPS 4, and FPS 10 generally had above mean SSC and yield. FPS 29, DJN 113, DJN 114, and DJN 115 consistently had above mean SSC but below mean yield.
Maria G. Emmanouilidou, Marios C. Kyriacou, and Isabel Trujillo
a result of the intensification of olive culture. The principle systematic survey conducted on indigenous olive germplasm from Cyprus focused solely on the clonal selection of the cv. Ladoelia, considered the main local variety ( Gregoriou, 1996
Laurence Firmin, Didier Courtois, Vincent Pétiard, Charles Ehret, and Konrad Lerch
Rhizomes of Iris species used for perfume production do not contain scented irones immediately after harvest, precluding early selection of potentially high-producing genotypes. A recently developed technique involving a bacterial treatment (Rahnella aquatilis Izard, Gavini, Trinel, and Leclerc) of fresh rhizomes shortened the maturation time from 3 years to a few days. Variability in irone content among freshly harvested Iris species (76 clones) was evaluated, and three high-producing clones of Iris pallida Lam. were selected. Significant variability among clones was observed for irone content, growth, and yield.
Maria M. Jenderek and Yayeh Zewdie
Until recently, there has been no large-scale production of true seeds in garlic (A. sativum L. and A. longicuspis L.). The recent discovery of male fertile garlic accessions stimulated research on the genetics and breeding of garlic. However, there is no information regarding the phenotypic characteristics of garlic populations generated from true seeds. We evaluated the first generation of sexually derived families of garlic for bulb and clove weight, number of cloves per bulb, flower stalk height, number of leaves, plant height, and days required to achieve bulb maturity. Significant variations were observed within and among families for these important traits.
Adriana Telias, Emily Hoover, and Diego Rother
‘Honeycrisp’ apple is controlled both at the genetic and the environmental level, leading us to suggest an epigenetic mechanism of control. Increasing blushed fruit production, both through clonal selection and crop load regulation, should be the goal if