Strawberry clipper is considered to be a major pest on matted-row strawberries in the northern U.S. and Canada. This pest is thought to be so threatening that even a single clipped bud indicates the potential for serious and rapid damage. Conventional wisdom states that fields should be treated for clipper during warm weather if they have a history of clipper damage—even if fields have not been scouted. Thresholds (fi ve clipped buds per meter) are based on the assumption that one clipped bud is equivalent to the loss of one average-sized berry. However, our data show no correlation between clipper damage and yield in field surveys, and our artificial clipping studies have found that strawberry plants have the ability to compensate for flower bud loss by increasing allocation to other fruits. For example, in plots of cv. Jewel, no significant difference was found in total yields between plots with no flower bud removal and plots with all primary flower buds removed (an average of 100 clipped buds per meter)—so long as the clipping happened early in the season. An increase in the size of secondary and tertiary fruit balanced the reduced fruit numbers. Similar trends were found with Kent. The ability to compensate for early flower bud loss also was assessed in a separate study with 10 strawberry cultivars. These studies suggest that our current threshold for clipper may be nearly two orders of magnitude too low, and that clipper may not be a true economic pest of strawberry.
Marvin P. Pritts and Greg English-Loeb
Marvin Pritts, Mary Jo Kelly and Greg English-Loeb
The strawberry bud weevil (Anthonomus signatus Say; clipper) is considered to be a serious early-season pest in perennial matted row strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne) plantings in North America. Adult females damage flower buds in early spring by depositing an egg in the bud, then clipping the bud from the pedicel. Action thresholds are low (two clipped buds/meter of row) because pest managers and growers have assumed that one clipped flower bud results in the loss of one average-sized fruit. Fields with a history of clipper damage are often treated with insecticides during the first period of warm weather that coincides with inflorescence development, without scouting for clipped buds or evaluating damage. We examined 12 strawberry cultivars and found that most can compensate for a significant amount of flower bud loss, provided that the loss occurs early in the development of the inflorescence. A new threshold is proposed in which the potential loss of fruit per inflorescence is considered, along with the total number of severely damaged inflorescences. We believe that in most circumstances and with most cultivars, clipper injury will remain below the damage threshold.
Christina S. Howard, Renae Moran and David Handley
The strawberry bud weevil (Anthonomus signatus), “clipper,” is an invasive pest to northeastern U.S. strawberry and raspberry crops. Strawberry is the primary host of clipper, but it has been observed damaging raspberry crops as well. The first objective for this research is to determine the importance of clipper as a pest on raspberries in the northeastern U.S. Raspberry plantings were scouted weekly on 13 grower-cooperator farms in Maine during the late spring and early Summer 2005 for the adult insects and bud injury (clipped or not). 10 canes from each site were then collected and the number of total buds and clipped buds were taken. This data will be correlated with the bud injury data to determine interrelationships between clipper populations and bud injury levels on different varieties of raspberries. The first year of this research has determined that clipper is a pest of raspberry in the northeastern U.S. Up to 55% clipper damage was found on raspberry plants in 2004 and up to 22% clipper damage was found in 2005. The other objective for this research is to develop integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for clipper on raspberry crops in the northeastern U.S. While scouting the farms this past summer, some different scouting techniques were tested for their efficiency and effectiveness at predicting the population levels of clipper on the crop. The scouting method of white sticky traps were hung in the field and provided the most accurate method of scouting for clipper in the field. In addition to this research, the importance of clipper as a pest of raspberries was tested using greenhouse-grown plants. They were analyzed for the ability of raspberry fruit yield to compensate for the loss of flower buds due to clipper damage. The research showed that plants with any clipped buds yielded significantly lower and the mean number of berries is significantly lower than the control plants with no clipped buds. The results also showed that the mean berry size was highest if there were no primaries clipped and significantly lower if primaries or secondaries were clipped concluding that there is little or no compensation in Killarney red raspberries when buds are clipped. This is a thesis project in progress with one more season of data to collect. Concluding the research, this work should improve grower awareness of clipper as a pest of raspberries and provide an IPM program to manage clipper on raspberries in the Northeast.
Dominique Lacan and J.C. Baccou
Respiration, C2H4 production, lipid composition, and electrolyte leakage were monitored during ripening of two nonnetted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) varieties differing in their storage life: `Clipper' (a long-storage-life variety) and `Jerac', which was used as a control. Respiration rates were comparable in both varieties. Although `Jerac' exhibited normal climacteric C2H4 production, `Clipper' continued to produce significant amounts of C2H4 until senescence. Electrolyte leakage increased with ripening and was always higher in `Jerac'. The loss of membrane integrity seems to be related to changes in the lipid composition due to a breakdown of phospholipids, an increase of sterol synthesis, and an increase in fatty acid saturation. On the contrary, in `Clipper', the absence of a major change in sterol and phospholipids content and the high level of fatty acid unsaturation suggest that membrane permeability is not greatly affected during ripening. This is consistent with the low loss of solutes measured and may delay senescence in `Clipper' fruit.
Fabienne Gauthier, Blanche Dansereau and Marie-Josee Lambert
During Fall 1995–Winter 1996, rooted cuttings of eight Rhododendron Simsii cultivars—Dorothy Gish, Jacinth, Paloma, White Gish, Friedhelm Scherrer, Gloria, Helmut Vogel, and Inga were transplanted July 1995 into 10.5-cm pots. A treatment consisted of one, two or three cuttings per pot. Cuttings were pinched either mechanically using a hedge clipper (control) or chemically with Off-Shoot-O at rates of 63.5 or 111.1 mL·L–1 of water or with Atrimmec at 20 mL·L–1 of water. Pinching treatments were repeated three times during the experimental period. New secondary shoots developed more rapidly after a mechanical pinch than after a chemical pinch. Moreover, greater foliage damage was observed on plants pinched with Off-Shoot-O. Growth measurements (height and diameter of plants, top dry mass, number of days to reach anthesis and visual quality) will be presented.
Passionfruit woodiness virus (PWV) can infect bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), causing a light and dark green foliar mosaic, veinbanding, downward curling, and plant stunting. The intensity of these symptoms can vary with the strain of the virus and cultivar, but they resemble those caused by bean common mosaic virus. In genetic populations derived from crosses and backcrosses involving cultivars that are resistant (`Black Turtle 1', `Clipper', and `RedKote') or susceptible (`Black Turtle 2', `California Light Red Kidney', and `Pioneer'), a single dominant gene conferred resistance to an Australian strain PWV-K. To this gene, the symbol Pwv (Passionfruit woodiness virus) is tentatively assigned. In plants derived from rooted cuttings of backcross populations, the same factor also conditioned resistance to three other Australian strains, PWV-Mild, PWV-51, and PWV-Tip Blight.
Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Alicia Rivera, Lamont D. Saunders, Nancy Shaw and Francis F. Kilkenny
structures in the combine. In 2006, the unthreshed seed of E. umbellatum was taken to the U.S. Forest Service Lucky Peak Nursery (Boise, ID) and run through a dewinger to separate seed. The seed was further cleaned in a Clipper Office Tester (Clipper
A. James Downer, Donald R. Hodel and Maren J. Mochizuki
trunk as possible using hand saws or pole-mounted saws with triedged blades (Corona Clipper, Corona, CA). Before beginning pruning treatments, the newest expanded leaf was tagged with plastic tape on all palms; before each subsequent pruning, the number
Laura E. Crawford and Martin M. Williams II
(Wannamaker Seeds, Inc., Saluda, NC), was used in the experiment. Seed were separated into discrete size classes with a seed cleaner (Clipper Cleaner, A. T. Ferrell Company, Bluffton, IN). The seed cleaner has round holed screens ranging from 0.71 to 1.07 cm
Jinmin Fu, Bingru Huang and Jack Fry
bottom of the containers. It was fertilized weekly with half-strength Hoagland's solution ( Hoagland and Arnon, 1950 ), and it was mowed every other day at a 5 to 6 cm height with an electric clipper. Irrigation treatments and experimental design. The