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Michael W. Smith and Charles T. Rohla

levers, increasing the likelihood of breakage. Following damaging weather events, producers seek information concerning effective cleanup procedures, subsequent management, recovery duration, and economic impact. State and Federal agencies and insurance

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Alan W. Hodges and John J. Haydu

damages to buildings and equipment, repair/cleanup costs, and length of business interruption resulting from hurricanes in 2004 and 2005. Information on annual sales was collected as a specific value, or within a range of values offered, at the discretion

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Carol A. Miles and Jaqueline King

weight was recorded. All fruit remaining on trees following machine harvest as well as fruit that fell to the ground during harvest were picked and weighed together, and were considered to be clean-up fruit weight. Harvest efficiency was calculated as the

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Meredith V. Melendez, Joseph R. Heckman, Stephanie Murphy and Frank D’Amico

changing soil variables. The New York Department of Environmental Conservation and New York State Department of Health (2006) has set the clean-up threshold for brownfield sites as 270 mg·kg −1 for soil copper levels. Table 1. Copper fungicide

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L.P. Brandenberger and R.P. Wiedenfeld

Bare soil, 13 different polyethylene mulching films, and K-Mulch kenaf paper film were compared to one another for use in early spring production of cantaloupe melons. The mulching treatments were applied to the top of raised beds spaced 200 cm apart in late January and seed of the cantaloupe variety Cruiser were planted in early February. Treatments were replicated five times in a complete randomized block design. Plots were irrigated throughout the season utilizing a drip irrigation system. Crop responses to mulches throughout the growing season were determined by measuring vine growth, fruit yield, Fruit quality and earliness. Mulch tensile strength was determined throughout the season, and ease of cleanup and disposal were evaluated after the growing season. Differences were recorded for treatments particularly regarding ease of cleanup.

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Richard H. Mattson*, Eunhee Kim, Gary E. Marlowe and Jimmy D. Nicholson

At the Lamar County Adult Probation Program in Paris, Texas, a three-year study (Spring 2001-Fall 2003) involving 376 probationers was conducted to investigate the rehabilitative effects on probationers of a horticulture vocational training program. Data were collected on 189 adults who were randomly assigned to a horticulture group doing greenhouse plant production and vegetable gardening activities. The horticulture group was compared with 187 adults who were in a non-horticulture community service group doing trash clean-up and janitorial work. Within the horticulture group, significant improvement occurred in horticultural knowledge (KSU General and Specific Horticulture Exams), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and environmental awareness (Environmental Response Inventory). These changes did not occur within the non-horticulture community service group. Future research will examine recidivism rates and vocational placements of probationers from both groups.

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Peggy G. Lemaux

The major challenge facing society in the 21st century is to feed and provide shelter for increasing numbers of people while protecting human health, our natural resource base, and the environment. To accomplish this, we must combine traditional technologies that stress conservation with modern technologies that rely heavily on biologically based solutions. Biotechnology, by its historical definition, has play an important role in environmental clean-up, but the contemporary practices of biotechnology will lead to more-sophisticated approaches. These technologies will allow clean-up of existing contamination and even prevention of contamination through more-sensitive and accurate monitoring systems. One of the most important advances is in bioremediation, in which microorganisms and plants remove contaminants from the soil or water and concentrate of volatilize them. In addition, plants are being modified through the changing of single genes so that they are less susceptible to pathogenic microorganisms, viruses, or insects, and more efficient in nitrogen utilization. The use of such modified plants, in concert with good agricultural practices, should lead to reductions in chemical inputs of pesticides and fertilizers. Strategies have also been developed that permit the “manufacture” in plant “pharms” of industrial products that are now produced through the use of nonrenewable resources. These biological approaches are part of the cadre of tools that we need to solve the problems of the next century. In addition, these tools will be instrumental in understanding the basic biological systems upon which the solutions to many of these challenges will come. Biotechnology is not a technological fix, but it should form part of the mind-set from which we design our strategies.

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Charles J. Simon and Richard M. Hannan

The USDA Pisum collection, currently consisting of 2881 P.I. lines, is in its third year of maintenance and distribution from the Pullman WA location, after being transferred from the Geneva. NY P.I. Station. It is our policy to distribute only material that is free of the Pea Seedborne Mosaic Virus. To that end 2300 of the lines have undergone an extensive virus cleanup program to verify infection status and provide virus free seed. Virus-free seed has been undergoing multiplication under greenhouse and screenhouse conditions in Pullman, and under field conditions at research station at Central Ferry, WA. Seed is now available for approximately 1700 lines. A two-year program to update descriptor information for the 19 most important descriptors identified by the Pisum CAC was initiated this summer. A pea core collection has been developed and is being examined for representative diversity with molecular markers.

The G.A. Marx genetic stocks collection was transferred to Pullman in February, 1994. Over 400 of the 500+ lines designated for that collection have been increased in Geneva, NY under greenhouse conditions and are currently available for distribution. A computer database describing this collection is near completion, as is a bound catalog that will be made available. Lines of the collection are being given P.I. numbers, and the database will be uploaded into the new version of the USDA GRIN computer system that should be on-line sometime in 1994.

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Thomas H. Yeager

Nursery operators had the opportunity to participate in a process to develop a voluntary incentive-based regulation that consummated the consensus of nursery and regulatory personnel regarding the best fertilization and irrigation cultural practice information available for producing plants in containers. Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (FDACS), which has statutory authority to develop and adopt practices by administrative rule, administered the process, and they relied on university extension personnel to provide education so nursery operators would be prepared to implement practices consistent with the regulation. Nursery operators who voluntarily implemented these practices received a waiver of liability from the recovery costs associated with the cleanup of groundwater contaminated with nitrate nitrogen if each of the following activities had taken place: 1) a notice of intent was filed with FDACS to implement accepted practices; 2) practices based on consensus of the industry were used and guidelines followed; and 3) fertilization and irrigation records were maintained. Participation in an industry-driven regulatory program where nursery operators agreed to use the best cultural practices available prior to the identification of a specific groundwater issue was a significant proactive step for the industry.

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Allen Owings, Ginger Fortson, Edward Bush and Jeff Kuehny

Hurricane Katrina (Aug. 2005) and Hurricane Rita (Sept. 2005) were devastating to the central U.S. Gulf Coast region. Hurricane Katrina caused an estimated $10–11 million in wholesale nursery crop damage in Louisiana, while Hurricane Rita caused an estimated $5 million in damages. Average wholesale nursery crop sales in Louisiana account for about $120 million annually. 317 wholesale growers in Louisiana (49% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Katrina, while 158 wholesale growers (24% of the state total) suffered damages due to Hurricane Rita. Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Katrina numbered 367 (28% of the state total). Louisiana's retail plant dealers affected by Hurricane Rita numbered 329 (24% of the state total). Retail plant dealers accounted for $511 million in sales in 2002, the year for which figures are most recently available. In the landscape and horticultural services segment of Louisiana's green industry, 703 (36%) were impacted by Hurricane Katrina and 450 (23%) were impacted by Hurricane Rita. While growers and retailers experienced economic hardships ranging from 1 month to permanent, most landscape contractors and horticultural service providers rebounded quickly and were actively involved in storm cleanup and recovery. Some, however, lost equipment, office structures, storage buildings, and vehicles. It is estimated that at least 20,000 of the 56,600 green industry employees in Louisiana were affected by Hurricanes Katrina and/or Rita to some degree. Louisiana's green industry overall provides about $2.2 billion in economic contributions annually.