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L. K. Jackson, F. P. Lawrence, and T. E. Crocker

Abstract

Research in the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) has developed production techniques whereby oranges can be produced for approximately 30-35¢ per 90 lb. box (40.8 kg). However, a 1968 survey has indicated that many growers had costs several times this figure. To counteract this, extension specialists at the University of Florida developed a “Program for Economical Citrus Production.” A research-documented text with an extensive bibliography and a series of charts with duplicate 35 mm colored slides for group presentation was prepared. Extension citrus agents received packages of the text material along with intensive training in each segment of the program. This text material is now used in a unified, statewide program whereby all extension personnel concerned with citrus can conduct intensive programs on specialized topics.

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ALLEN G. SMAJSTRLA

The use of microirrigation in Florida citrus production has increased rapidly in recent years. Most new groves are now being developed with microspray or drip irrigation. Many existing sprinkler and seepage (subirrigation) systems have also been converted to micro irrigation. Although water management districts have encouraged the use of micro irrigation for water conservation, research results which solved problems with the practical implementation of this technology and which demonstrated economic incentives are primarily responsible for its popularity in Florida citrus production. Research programs have (1) developed management techniques to eliminate emitter clogging, (2) demonstrated the effective use of microspray systems for freeze protection, (3) increased young tree growth with respect to conventional irrigation methods, (4) demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of microirrigation, and (5) developed management techniques for efficient use of water and nutrients in fruit production.

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ALLEN G. SMAJSTRLA

The use of microirrigation in Florida citrus production has increased rapidly in recent years. Most new groves are now being developed with microspray or drip irrigation. Many existing sprinkler and seepage (subirrigation) systems have also been converted to micro irrigation. Although water management districts have encouraged the use of micro irrigation for water conservation, research results which solved problems with the practical implementation of this technology and which demonstrated economic incentives are primarily responsible for its popularity in Florida citrus production. Research programs have (1) developed management techniques to eliminate emitter clogging, (2) demonstrated the effective use of microspray systems for freeze protection, (3) increased young tree growth with respect to conventional irrigation methods, (4) demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of microirrigation, and (5) developed management techniques for efficient use of water and nutrients in fruit production.

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Chris Wilson, Ed Stover, and Brian Boman

Off-target deposition of pesticidal spray material is both an economic loss to the grower and a potential environmental problem in southern Florida. This study evaluated the reduction in non-target deposition of copper resulting from different approaches to spraying row-ends in typical Indian River citrus (Citrus) production systems. Using copper as a model pesticide, applications were made in a commercial citrus grove in June and July 2001. Non-target deposition on the water surface within an adjacent drainage canal, as well as on surrounding ground surfaces, was measured using Teflon spray targets. Specific row-end spraying scenarios included: 1) leaving both banks of nozzles on while turning; 2) turning the outside-facing nozzles off (leaving tree-facing nozzles on); 3) turning both banks of nozzles off at the tree trunk; and 4) turning all nozzles off at the end of the foliage of the last tree within the row. Deposition directly onto surface water contained within drainage canals was reduced significantly when nozzles were turned off at the last tree within a row, or when the outside-facing nozzles-only were turned off through the turn. Likewise, deposition was reduced on ground surfaces adjacent to the sprayer under the same scenarios. No differences were observed on ground surfaces on the opposite side of the canal. Significant reductions in direct application of agrichemicals to surface waters within Indian River citrus production groves can be achieved by turning nozzles off when turning from one tree row into the next.

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Thomas H. Spreen, Jean-Paul Baldwin, and Stephen H. Futch

Huanglongbing (HLB) was first discovered in Florida in 2005. It can now be found in all counties in the state where commercial citrus production takes place. HLB is a bacterial disease that is transmitted by the Asiatic citrus psyllid. HLB negatively affects citrus producers in several ways, including reduced yield, increased grove maintenance costs, and increased tree mortality. The research presented in this article suggests that another consequence of HLB is its adverse effect on the willingness of producers to invest in new plantings. Reduced plantings imply reduced fruit production in the future.

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Allen G. Smajstrla

Open access

Shen Zhaomin

Abstract

China is one of the areas where citrus originated, with >4000 years history of citrus growing. Many cultivars are found here. The climate is suitable, and there are vast areas with great potential for citrus development.

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G. Smith-Kayode, George Akbigbe, J.A. Kolade, and C.A. Amih

The commercial production and handling systems in Benue State was undertaken under a World Bank assisted project to identify and seek solution to constraints facing citrus farming in some rural parts of Nigeria. Selected areas noted for intensive fruit cultivation like Gbako,Yandev,Katsina-ala, and Aliade was covered in a survey by citrus agronomists and postharvest specialists. The study looked into processes and activities at farmers plots, agriculture department extension plots and nurseries, local markets and processing plants. Key production constraints identified include pest management and weed problems,bush burning, and high labor costs for farm operations. Lack of organized marketing outlets, high transport costs, and fruit decay at collection centers were the main bottlenecks facing the postharvest operations. Local processors face the problems of poor-quality raw material supply and the unstable price regimes every season. Investigation revealed that improved extension linkages that emphasize appropriate orchard management skills, integrated pest management, and careful handling should be introduced.

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G. J. Hochmuth, S. J. Locascio, T.E. Crocker, C.D. Stanley, G.A. Clark, and L.R Parsons

The Florida horticulture industry (vegetables, ornamentals, citrus, and deciduous fruit), valued at $4.5 billion, has widely adopted microirrigation techniques to use water and fertilizer more efficiently. A broad array of microirrigation systems is available, and benefits of microirrigation go beyond water conservation. The potential for more-efficient agricultural chemical (pesticides and fertilizer) application is especially important in today's environmentally conscious society. Microirrigation is a tool providing growers with the power to better manage costly inputs, minimize environmental impact, and still produce high-quality products at a profit.

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Kirandeep K. Mann, Arnold W. Schumann, Thomas A. Obreza, and Jerry B. Sartain

The soils under Florida citrus production have very poor natural fertility. Furthermore, on some sandy soils, the problems of spatial variability in yield and soil properties are very common. The poor growth areas of a field have a much lighter soil