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Ariel Singerman, Stephen H. Futch, and Brandon Page

diseases and can enhance their horticultural attributes, such as size, yield, and fruit quality ( Bowman et al., 2016 ; Wutscher and Bowman, 1999 ; Wutscher and Hill, 1995 ). Since the outbreak of citrus greening or Huanglongbing (HLB), research of

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Edward A. Evans, Fredy H. Ballen, and Jonathan H. Crane

, because of phytosanitary issues in Mexico, such as sweet orange scab ( Elsinoë australis ) and citrus greening ( FreshFruitPortal.com, 2011 ). Further stoking the interest of prospective U.S. producers are results of a demonstration plot of tahiti limes at

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Sheng Li, Feng Wu, Yongping Duan, Ariel Singerman, and Zhengfei Guan

-Jumaili, A. Ehsani, R. 2015 Mobile batch heat treatment system for treating HLB-infected citrus trees. 2015 ASABE Annu. Intl. Meet. 1 Alvarez, S. Rohrig, E. Solís, D. Thomas, M.H. 2016 Citrus greening disease (huanglongbing) in Florida: Economic impact

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Craig Brodersen, Cody Narciso, Mary Reed, and Ed Etxeberria

Citrus HLB (synonym citrus greening) is a highly destructive, fast-spreading disease of citrus. Its presumed pathological agent, Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is a fastidious Gram-negative, obligate parasite, phloem-limited α

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Giuseppe Cimò, Riccardo Lo Bianco, Pedro Gonzalez, Wije Bandaranayake, Edgardo Etxeberria, and James P. Syvertsen

Currently, the most important problem in citrus production worldwide is the bacterial disease HLB (syn. citrus greening). HLB is presumably caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus ( C las), a fastidious Gram-negative, obligate

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Ariel Singerman, Marina Burani-Arouca, and Stephen H. Futch

The Florida citrus industry has been enduring the impact of citrus greening since 2005. The disease has been the main driver for the state’s citrus production to plummet by 80% in the past 13 years, causing the industry to downsize drastically. Planting new groves is key to ensuring a supply of fruit for processors and packinghouses to stay in business. However, a key question is whether it makes economic sense to plant a new grove in the current environment. We estimate the establishment and production costs for a new grove under endemic Huanglongbing (HLB; citrus greening) conditions for three different tree planting densities under different market conditions and examine their profitability. Our results show that establishing a new grove with a tree density similar to that of the state’s average is not profitable under current market conditions. However, greater tree densities are profitable despite the greater level of investment required.

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Antonios E. Tsagkarakis, Michael E. Rogers, and Timothy M. Spann

Asian citrus psyllid [ACP (Diaphorina citri)] is an important pest of citrus (Citrus sp.) in many citrus-growing regions of the world because of its status as the vector of huanglongbing disease [HLB (citrus greening)]. There are currently no HLB-resistant citrus genotypes and no proven treatments for the disease; thus, vector control through the use of frequent prophylactic pesticide applications is key to managing the spread of this disease. However, this practice is unsustainable and other means of altering ACP biology or reducing populations are needed. To this end, six plant growth regulators (PGRs) were tested to determine their effect on citrus tree vegetative growth and the subsequent impact on the biology of ACP. In greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, ACP reared on trees treated with prohexadione calcium and mefluidide exhibited significant reductions in both fecundity and survivorship, whereas uniconazole affected only fecundity and paclobutrazol affected only survivorship. No significant effects of PGRs on adult ACP weight were observed except on uniconazole-treated trees. No eggs were laid on dikegulac sodium-treated trees; however, this was likely the result of severe phytotoxicity rather than a true PGR effect. Oviposition rate was lower on all the PGR-treated trees, except chlormequat chloride under greenhouse conditions, compared with untreated control trees. In general, oviposition was delayed on PGR-treated trees compared with untreated controls. The observed changes in ACP biology and behavior after PGR treatment were not the result of a reduction in the number of suitable oviposition sites (i.e., growth reduction) or toxicity of the PGRs to ACP, suggesting there were PGR-induced plant biochemical changes that altered host plant quality. Leaf nutrient analyses and photosynthesis indicated that there were no correlative changes in plant nutrient status or carbon assimilation that led to the changes in ACP behavior, although it is possible that phloem-specific nutrient or carbohydrate changes could have occurred that were not detected in our whole-leaf analyses. These results support previous studies in which the fitness of various insect species has been affected by PGR applications, but more research is needed to understand the changes in plant chemistry that are responsible.

Open access

Tripti Vashisth and Taylor Livingston

Huanglongbing (HLB, aka citrus greening), a bacterial disease caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus ( C Las), threatens citrus production in Florida and around the world ( Alvarez et al., 2016 ; Bové, 2006 ). HLB can be transmitted by

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Ute Albrecht and Kim D. Bowman

Citrus HLB, often referred to as “citrus greening,” is a destructive disease of citrus that is distributed throughout most citrus-producing countries worldwide, where it generates substantial economic losses ( Bové, 2006 ). The suspected causal

Open access

Eduardo Esteves, Gabriel Maltais-Landry, Flavia Zambon, Rhuanito Soranz Ferrarezi, and Davie M. Kadyampakeni

fertilizers that are not prone to volatilization losses. Literature Cited Alvarez, S. Rohrig, E. Solís, D. Thomas, M.H. 2016 Citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing) in Florida: Economic impact, management, and the potential for