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Simona Pinnavaia, Emilio Senesi, Anne Plotto, Jan A. Narciso, and Elizabeth A. Baldwin

surfaces can often extend storage by creating a hostile environment for nonacid-tolerant organisms ( Hobbs, 1986 ). Pao and Petracek (1997) were able to extend shelf life of peeled and cut oranges with 0.5% and 1% citric acid when fruit were stored at 4

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L. Zhang, J.R. Livingstone, Y. Tarui, and E. Hirasawa

infusion of exogenous SUC increased attached miniature rose ( Rosa hybrida ) flower longevity ( Monteiro et al., 2002 ). However, another issue is that the SUC medium might favor the growth of fungi and other microorganisms. It is also known that citric

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J.G. Lopez-Aguirre, J. Molina-Ochoa, J. Farias-Larios, S. Guzman-Gonzalez, and A. Michel-Rosales

Amelioration and/or reclamation of saline and non-saline soils is based on the application of high quantities of agrochemical products or high volumes of water, which causes an injury in soil or downward displacement of nutrients to the lower layers in soils. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of application of citric industry waste on saline and non-saline soil. The waste has an electrical conductivity (EC) of 2.7 dS/m and pH of 3–4.2, 35% is organic material that is readily decomposed. This experiment was carried out on field conditions using applications of three different volumes, T1 = 3200, T2 = 6400, and T3 = 9600 m3·ha–1·m–1 and a control, no-waste, (T0), using just irrigation water (EC = 2.5 dS·m–1). The same treatments were added to non-saline soil. Effect of citric industry waste application in both saline and non-saline soils was similar. In all the treatments, EC was decreased with respect to T0 and soil before application (BA), the largest decrease was found in T3. pH decreased in the top soil layer much more than in the bottom layers. Ions were decreased in all soil profile. Organic matter (OM) was increased in the profile in treatment T1 with respect to treatment T0, as well as in the top soil layers in T2 and T3, but no changes were detected in the remainder of the layers in treatments T2 and T3. We can suggest that the waste studied can be used in the amelioration of saline and non-saline soils.

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Yifei Wang, Stephanie K. Fong, Ajay P. Singh, Nicholi Vorsa, and Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese

, 2014 ; Horvat and Senter, 1985 ), blueberries also contain different organic acids, including citric, quinic, malic, and succinic acids that contribute to their unique flavor ( Ehlenfeldt et al., 1994 ). Moreover, they are also known for the rich

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Allen V. Barker and Randall G. Prostak

( Liu and Christians, 1994 ; 1996 ). Attention has been given to the organic acids, acetic acid (vinegar) ( Johnson et al., 2004 ; Radhakrishnan et al., 2003 ; Webber and Shrefler, 2007 ; Young, 2004 ), and citric acid ( Chase et al., 2004 ). These

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Martin P.N. Gent, Zakia D. Parrish, and Jason C. White

Exudation of organic acids by roots has been implicated in uptake of minerals from soil. Three cultivars within each of two subspecies of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo ssp. ovifera D. S. Decker var. ovifera and C. pepo ssp. pepo var. pepo) were grown in the field. Plants of ssp. pepo had higher concentrations of K, P, and Zn than those of ssp. ovifera. These same cultivars were grown under P sufficient and depleted conditions in hydroponics, to measure exudation of organic acids from roots. When grown in hydroponics, tissues of ssp. ovifera had similar or higher concentrations of nutrients than ssp. pepo. Therefore, differences in tissue composition of field-grown plants are likely due to differences in nutrient uptake ability, not inherent differences in tissue composition between subspecies. Phosphorus nutrition played a significant role in exudation of organic acids into the hydroponics solution. For both subspecies, P depletion resulted in exudation of more citric and succinic acid, and less oxalic and tartaric acid. Under P depletion, ssp. pepo exuded more citric acid than ssp. ovifera. When soil was eluted with solution containing root exudates, the exudates from ssp. pepo eluted more K, Mg, Fe, and Zn than did those from ssp. ovifera. Among subspecies of C. pepo, exudation of organic acids, particularly exudation of citric acid in response to P depletion, is associated with the plant's ability to accumulate more inorganic nutrients when grown in the field.

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, Filmore I. Meredith, and James R. Ballington

The fruit of six highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars and eight rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) cultivars and selections were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for levels of the commonly found organic acids, citric, malic, succinic, and quinic. The two cultivar groups possessed distinctive patterns of relative organic acid proportions that could unambiguously separate pure rabbiteye and highbush clones in a principal component analysis. Highbush clones were characterized by high citric acid content, with percentages averaging 75% (range 38% to 90%). Succinic acid was the second most plentiful acid, averaging 17%. In contrast, rabbiteye cultivars and selections contained 10% citric acid, and no clone had >22%. Succinic acid and malic acid were found in greater quantities than in highbush, averaging 50% and 34%, respectively. Analysis of the fruit of seven albino-fruited highbush selections exhibited a profile similar to standard highbush cultivars, but with a citric acid average of <50%, and proportionally greater amounts of succinic and quinic acids. Given the differences in sensory quality of these four acids, it is likely that acid partitioning patterns can largely account for some of the perceived flavor differences between rabbiteye and highbush blueberries. Because several current breeding efforts involve hybridization between highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, a consideration of acid composition of breeding parents maybe worthwhile.

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Hisashi Kato-Noguchi and Alley E. Watada

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Iftikhar Ahmad and John M. Dole

metabolic processes and continued flower opening during vase life. Among acidifiers, citric acid is the most common compound and is used to lower the pH of the preservative solutions and control microbial proliferation. Citric acid has been found effective

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Victor M. Gallegos-Cedillo, Juan E. Álvaro, Th. Capatos, T. Luan Hachmann, Gilda Carrasco, and Miguel Urrestarazu

Si and citric acid are active substances accepted in organic farming in Europe ( DOUE, 2008 ) and the United States ( USDA Organic, 2015 ). Although blueberry is a clearly acidophilic plant, there is no possibility of using nitric or other inorganic