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Neil O. Anderson, Mi-kyoung Won, and Dong-chan Kim

Jong, 1989 ), American ( Anderson and Ascher, 2001 ), Taiwanese ( Wang et al., 2008 ), and Chinese ( Xiwang et al., 2008 ) chrysanthemum breeding programs. An ideotype has been proposed to select for DN and HDI garden chrysanthemums in a LD, HT

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Neil O. Anderson, Esther Gesick, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Steven Poppe, Barbara E. Liedl, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

; Widmer, 1978 ). Cushion habit now predominates throughout the global market ( Anderson, 2006 ). The chrysanthemum breeding program at the University of Minnesota is the oldest public sector chrysanthemum breeding program in the world (1926 to the present

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Lee Klossner, Neal S. Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

tolerance, butterfly and bee attractants) or habits (upright, cushion, shrub, groundcover) that dominate market share in the United States as well as globally. This program is also the oldest, continuously operating garden chrysanthemum breeding program

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Lee Klossner, and Neal Eash

chrysanthemums for Minnesota The Minnesota Horticulturist 71 76 77 Longley, L.E. 1949 Chrysanthemums for the north Horticulture 27 11 404 Longley, L.E. 1950 Chrysanthemum breeding at the University of Minnesota Nat’l. Chrysanthemum Soc. Bull. 6 45 46 Miller, G

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Neil O. Anderson, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Barbara E. Liedl, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Judith Reith-Rozelle, Lee Klossner, and Neal Eash

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Neil Anderson, Peter Ascher, Esther Gesick, Brad Walvatne, Neal Eash, Vince Fritz, Jim Hebel, Steve Poppe, Roger Wagner, and Dave Wildung

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Neil O. Anderson, Peter D. Ascher, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, Patricia Johnson, Barbara E. Liedl, Judith Reith-Rozelle, Lee Klossner, and Neal Eash

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Neil O. Anderson, Steven Poppe, Peter D. Ascher, Esther Gesick, Shengrui Yao, David Wildung, Patricia Johnson, Vincent Fritz, James Hebel, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

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Neil O. Anderson, Esther Gesick, Peter D. Ascher, Steven Poppe, Shengrui Yao, David Wildung, Patricia Johnson, Vincent Fritz, Charlie Rohwer, Lee Klossner, Neal Eash, Barbara E. Liedl, and Judith Reith-Rozelle

Mammoth™ ‘Twilight Pink Daisy’ (U.S. Plant Patent 14,455; Canadian Plant Breeders’ Rights Certificate No. 4192) is an interspecific garden chrysanthemum cultivar, Chrysanthemum ×hybridum Anderson (= Dendranthema ×hybrida Anderson) with common names of hardy mum, chrysanthemum, and garden mum. It is a new and distinct form of shrub-type garden mums in the Mammoth™ series with rosy-pink ray florets, a dark “eye” color in the center of the disc florets, frost-tolerant flower petals, and self-pinching growth. This cultivar is a butterfly attractant in the garden. Mammoth™ ‘Twilight Pink Daisy’ is a winter-hardy herbaceous perennial in USDA Z3b–Z9 (Southeast)/Zone 10 (West) with its cushion growth form displaying extreme hybrid vigor, increasing in plant height from 0.46 m in its first year to a shrub of 0.76 to 1.22 m in the second year and thereafter with greater than 3000 leaves/plant. Flowering is prolific, covering the entire plant at full flowering with as many as greater than 3500 flowers in the second year. Chemical abbreviations: ethanol (EtOH), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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He Huang, Yuting Liu, Ya Pu, Mi Zhang, and Silan Dai

Plant growth and development are significantly affected by salt stress. Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium is a halophyte species and one of the ancestors of chrysanthemum (C. ×morifolium). Understanding how this species tolerates salt stress could provide vital insight for clarifying the salt response systems of higher plants, and chrysanthemum-breeding programs could be improved. In this study, salt tolerance was compared among C. lavandulifolium and three chrysanthemum cultivars by physiological experiments, among which C. lavandulifolium and Jinba displayed better tolerance to salt stress than the other two cultivars, whereas Xueshan was a salt-sensitive cultivar. Using the transcriptome database of C. lavandulifolium as a reference, we used digital gene expression technology to analyze the global gene expression changes in C. lavandulifolium seedlings treated with 200 mm NaCl for 12 hours compared with seedlings cultured in normal conditions. In total, 2254 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 1418 up-regulated and 836 down-regulated genes, were identified. These DEGs were significantly enriched in 35 gene ontology terms and 29 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Genes related to signal transduction, ion transport, proline biosynthesis, reactive oxygen species scavenging systems, and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways were relevant to the salt tolerance of C. lavandulifolium. Furthermore, comparative gene expression analysis was conducted using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to compare the transcriptional levels of significantly up-regulated DEGs in C. lavandulifolium and the salt-sensitive cultivar Xueshan, and species-specific differences were observed. The analysis of one of the DEGs, ClAKT, an important K+ transport gene, was found to enable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana to absorb K+ and efflux Na+ under salt stress and to absorb K+ under drought stress. The present study investigated potential genes and pathways involved in salt tolerance in C. lavandulifolium and provided a hereditary resource for the confinement of genes and pathways responsible for salt tolerance in this species. This study provided a valuable source of reference genes for chrysanthemum cultivar transgenesis breeding.